Rebirth, refers to the revival of art and learning (1300-1600)
Intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
Worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with here and now
Patrons of the Arts
People who supported the artists financially
Technique used in art to show three dimensions on a flat surface
Native Language (not Latin)
A growth of these in Northern Italy, which where a Bubonic Plague in the 1300s kills 60% of population. This disrupts the economy
A wealthy family of bankers, rulers, and patrons of the arts that controlled Florence and much of Italy
Renaissance Man
Must excel in many fields: the classic arts, politics, and combat; Baldassare Castiglione writes "The Courtier" in 1528; the "universal" person
Renaissance Woman
Upper class, educated, and charming; inspire art but not create it; d'Este, patron of the arts, wields power in Mantua
Wrote "The Divine Comedy" about a soul reaching salvation
Niccolo Machievelli
Wrote "The Prince", which advices rulers and explains how people can gain power (and keep it)
Pardon of the Church releasing the sinner from penalty
Movement for religious reform
Luther and his followers were a separate religious group and called this
Term applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches
Printing Press
Spreads secular ideas which challenges church authority; created by Johannes Gutenberg; first form made in China; first book printed was The Bible
Popes and Priests
Very extravagant but corrupt, some of them were poorly educated and could barely read
John Wycliffe and Jan Hus
They stressed the Bible's authority over clergy's
Desderius Erasmus and Thomas More
They were vocal critics of the Church
The 95 Theses
This attacked "pardon merchants" and was posted by Martin Luther on a church door in 1517; written in Latin; intended audience was the Church
Friar Johann Tetzel
He was protested by Martin Luther for selling indulgences
Luther's Teachings
People can win salvation by faith, not by good works; Christian teachings must be based on the Bible, not the Pope; All people with faith are equal and can interpret the Bible without priests
Pope Leo X
He issued a decree threatening to excommunicate Luther in 1520, but Luther refuses
Charles V
He was the Holy Roman Emperor and issued the Edict of Werms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic
Peasant's Revolt
Inspired by Luther and the Reformation; Luther didn't support them; 100,000 people die
The Princes that sided with Luther
Peace of Ausburg
In 1555, it was a decree that said that each prince can decide the religion of his state
Henry VIII
He had only one daughter; wanted a divorce, but turned into an annulment; had 6 wives; became the official head of the English Church
Angelic Church
The Church of England; formed by Queen Elizabeth I
God has known from the beginning of time who will be saved (very few)
Religion based on John Calvin's teachings
Government controlled by religious leaders
John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland and his followers had this name
Christians who were old enough to decide to be Christian; they opposed wars; Forerunners of Mennonites and Amish
Catholic Reformation
A movement within the Church to help Catholics remain loyal. Ignatius of Loyola was VERY important
The Society of Jesus (made schools, converted people to Catholicism, and stopped the spread of Protestantism)
Council of Trent (Paul III)
Church's interpretation of the Bible is final
John Calvin
He said that the ideal government is theocracy -- his followers in France are called Huguenots
French followers of Calvinism; massacred in Paris in 1572 by Catholics
Ignatius of Loyola
He was a leading Catholic reformer; his spiritual exercises called for meditation, prayer, and study
Reforming Popes
Pope Paul III and Pope Paul IV, who used Inquisition to seek out heresy
Index of Forbidden Books
Issued by Pope Paul IV in 1539; 10,000 books burned in one day
Religious and Social Effects of Reformation
Catholic Church is unified; Catholics and Protestants create schools across Europe; women's status does not improve
Political Effects of Reformation
Catholic Church's power lessens; brings intellectual ferment; pushes forth the Enlightenment
"School of Athens"
Raphael's best known work of art
"David" Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo painting
"Mona Lisa, Last Supper"
Leonardo Da Vinci painting