Represents a cultural "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
Secular (of clergy)
Not subject to or bound by religious rule. Not belonging to or living in a monastic or other order.
A Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
Christian humanism
A movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church.
A remission of the penalty for a confessed sin that could be granted only by a pope.

The unrestricted sale of _______, by pardoners, was a widespread abuse during the later Middle Ages.

Divine foreordaining of all that will happen, especially with regard to the salvation of some people and not others.
Reduce (marriage) to nothing; to make ineffective or inoperative; to declare legally invalid or void.
3 characteristics of the Renaissance
1. Humanism2.

Art3. Politics

3 Italian states crucial to the Renaissance
1. Florence2. Milan3. Venice
3 levels of Renaissance Europe society, the percentage of population, and characteristics of each.

Nobles made up 2-3% of population, and held important political posts and advisers to the king.2. Peasants made up 85-90% of the population, and were laborers. Labor owed by peasants to lords were converted into rent on land paid in money.3. Workers made up the rest of the populations %, and were mostly merchants and artisans.

Why was marriage so important in Renaissance society?
Dowry, the sum of money given by the wife's family to the husband upon marriage.
One major difference about Medieval art.
Had no realistic characteristics.
One major difference about Renaissance art.
Had great illusion with 3D dimension.

One major difference about Medieval architecture.
Had gothic houses, meant to serve a purpose.
One major difference about Renaissance architecture.
Had arches and domes.
One major difference about Medieval scientific thinking.
Studied in the natural world.

One major difference about Renaissance scientific thinking.
Discovered cells and invention of the telescope happened.
Who was the best known Christian Humanism?
Desiderius Erasmus
Why was Martin Luther unhappy with the Catholic Church?
The Church was acting greedy by taking advantage of people and selling indulgences; telling people they would receive forgiveness for sins and entry into heaven.
What document did Martin Luther write to convey (communicate) his criticisms?
95 Theses
Describe the differences between the establishment of Lutheranism, Calvinism, and the Church of England.

1. Calvinism develops Luther's Doctrine of Justification by faith alone and emphasizes the grace of God.2. Church of England had produced numerous unsuccessful separations.

3. The first major split of the church occurred in 1054, between Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church.4. Lutheranism is within the Roman Catholic Church.5.

The movement originated with the call for public debate by Martin Luther, and soon spread across Northern Europe, and became the driving force behind the wider Protestant reformation.