What is humanism?
The belief in human potential and achievements.
This man is credited with making the first printing press.
Queen Elizabeth I supported the arts largely through buying art. This allowed _______ to greatly influence the world today.
What city was the center of the Renaissance?
Florence, Italy
What type of art was the focus of the Renaissance?
The Renaissance believers thought that people should return to the basics of what culture(s)?
Greece and Rome
Name three Renaissance artists:
Raphael, Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Donatello
What language became the language of literature?
The ________ family was at the beginning of the Renaissance.
Why was Italy the home of the Renaissance?
Trade Routes between Middle East and Europe, Church headquarters
Who led the split away from the Catholic Church in England?
Henry VIII
What was the Philosophy of the Reformation and why?
People began to question the long held beliefs
This englishman spoke up against the King trying to split from the church.
Thomas More
Why did England split from the church?
The King wanted a male heir so he needed to divorce his wife
What country did the Protestant reformation start in?
Name 3 causes of the Protestant reformation
Disapproved of the sale of indulgences, criticisms of the Catholic church, political leaders challenging the Pope for power
Luther wanted to change what about the language of the church?
the Spoken language of the people
How was the printing press crucial to Martin Luther?
He could spread his beliefs more efficiently
What did the Peace of Westphalia do?
It ended religious wars in Europe
What did the edict of Worms declare?
Luther was a heretic and no one should have contact with him
Social Contract
When people agree to obey the ruler of their country in return for law and order/the ruler will do what is within the best interest of the people
Constitutional Monarchy
The idea that power should be shared between a monarch and parliament
What were Locke's beliefs?
Democracy would be the best form of government and government would get the consent to rule from the people.
What were Voltaire's beliefs?
Freedom of thought (speech/religion)
Whose beliefs gave the US the basis for the separation of powers?
What were Rousseau's beliefs?
Individual liberties: life, liberty, property and the pursuit of happiness
The system of government that Hobbes thought would work best because it would provide law and order was ________
Absolutism (King or Queen)
Divine rights
Believing you get the power to rule from God
Mary Wollenstonecraft's beliefs were ___________
That men and women are created equal, therefore women need to be educated and given a place in government
What was the french word for philosophers during the enlightenment?
What did King Louis the XVI do that caused the french to revolt?
spent too much money on wars, housing, feasts, and his wife
Who led the largest slave revolt in history?
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Who was Louis (XVI)'s wife?
Marie Antoinette
Who made up the third estate?
Merchants, workers, and peasants (farmers)
After Robespierre died and there were 5 years of turmoil, who came to power?
Napoleon Bonaparte
Name 3 political ways of thinking during the revolutions:
conservative, radical, liberal
Why was the execution of Charles I important?
It was the first time a king had been brought to trial, found guilty, and killed
The time in which the committee of public safety tried to ensure the safety of all France was called _________
The reign of terror
Who lead the revolts in South America?
Simon Bolivar
What did Miguel Hidalgo do before leading the Mexican revolution?
He was a priest
Who developed the Heliocentric theory?
Nicolaus Copernicus
What is the Heliocentric Theory?
the theory that the earth rotates around the sun
The Scientific method
identify a problem, make a hypothesis, test with experimentation, make a conclusion
Who discovered gravity?
Isaac Newton
What were the causes of the Scientific Revolution?
People began to question the status quo, increased education, exploration
what was the geocentric theory?
the belief that earth is the center of the universe and everything surrounds it
What did Descartes help develop?
the scientific method
Who discovered chemistry?
What country was Fahrenheit from?
What country was Celsius from?
Describe two ways in which Ivan the Terrible was terrible:
he killed many of his followers, hurt animals, and killed his eldest son
What men were responsible for uniting Italy?
Camillo Di Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi
who were the peninsulares?
Spanish people in Latin America that were born in Spain
Why did some russians want serfdom to go away?
it was immoral and holding back Russia economically
What leader westernized Russia
Peter the Great
Who unified Germany?
Otto Van Bismarck
What's another word for Kaiser?
What is nationalism?
The idea that people should be loyal to their country before their leader
Who was on top of social structure in Latin America?
the peninsulares
Who ruled Spain when it was at it's height? (one of the largest empires in the world)
Phillip II