The Great Schism
A power struggle between Pope Boniface and King Philip IV over taxes and authority; a root of the reformation
Conciliar Movement
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes, and that the council of cardinals can override papal authority
Who were John Wyclif and Jan Huns?
Indulgences, simony, Pluralism, Absenteeism
List the 4 clerical abuses
Papers you can buy that reduced the time one suffered in purgatory based on the price; one of the first items on the printing press.
The sale of church offices or positions
Having more than one clerical office
Pluralism resulted in this, the unavailability of a member of the clergy to provide spiritual guidance to his church goers
Before the reformation, the papacy was becoming more ________.
Mechanical path to salvation
Receiving sacraments in order to go to heaven was called the __________ _____ __ _____________
Northern/Christian Renaissance
Renaissance ideas outside of Italy were called th e __________
Northern/Christian Humanists
The people who wanted a purer and more moral Christianity in a reform of the church, did NOT want to end the church.
Desiderius Erasmus (The Philosophy of Christ)
The belief in selfless love and piety in religion
Martin Luther
A German catholic monk who was unsatisfied with the church's path to salvation and uncertain about his own salvation
95 Theses
A list of grievances with the church that Martin Luther posted
Justification of Faith
Salvation achieved by faith ALONE, without clergy, indulgences, sacraments, etc....; one of Martin Luthers 95 theses.
Papal Infallibility
The idea that the pope was always right and could never fail
Written in vernacular and the sole authority
Martin Luther believed the bible should be
Clerical celibacy and indulgences
Martin Luther strongly opposed these two church ideals regarding clerical behavior and purgatory
Excommunicated; Lutheranism
Martin Luther was _______________ from the Catholic church and denounced a heretic, so he started his own form of Christianity called __________
Charles V
This leader of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire wanted to stop Lutheranism and make the Holy Roman Emperor a powerful position.
German Princes
Luther received much support from ___________ so that they may enhance their own power by leading Lutheran churches
Against; Because his power lies in the German nobility whom the peasants are revolting against.
Was Luther for or against the peasant revolts to gain social and economic freedoms? Why?
John Calvin
This man from Geneva Switzerland began the form of Christianity known as Calvinism.
Predestination; Calvinism
The theory that God has determined the fate of your soul even before you are born, it is believed in ______(religion)
Hierarchy/Episcopal Model
The Calvinists were strongly against the concept of _________ in the church, believing all members of the church were equal and all believers should participate, not just the clergy
What group of Christians were militant/willing to fight for their religion?
French Calvinists were known as __________
Scottish Calvinists were known as _________
English Calvinists were known as __________ (Because they believed they were PURE of hierarchy in the church. This group would later migrate to America in search of religious freedom and become known as what we call Pilgrims today)
Henry VIII
This English king began the Anglican church so he could divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, the woman he impregnated,
The monarch, as opposed to the pope
The Anglican church is similar to the Catholic church in all ways except the authority lies in _________ in Anglicanism
The Catholic Reformation was a ______________ movement
Council of Trent
This doctrine reaffirmed the authority of the pope
A New Catholic Order of evangelical missionaries who spread Catholicism in America and Asia
French Wars of Religion
These wars between the Hugenots fighting against the absolutist kings for "religious" freedom start the Catholic Bourbon dynasty of France.
Edict of Nantes
This is the French edict in which the king converts to Catholicism but allows Protestants, Calvinists, and others to freely practice their own faiths.
Thirty Years War
The war fought on Germanic lands between the German and Spanish Protestants and Catholics
The Germans lost ____% of their population in the Thirty Years War
Treaty of Westphalia
A treaty stating that the Germanic rulers in the Holy Roman Empire can choose the religion practiced in their own separate areas rather than a united Holy Roman Empire religion. It also gives Holland independence from Spain.
Protestants usually lived North or South? (Consider the position of the Vatican, center of the Catholic church. would they want to be close or far from it?)
Catholics usually lived North or South? (Consider the position of the Vatican, center of the Catholic church. would they want to be close or far from it?)
English Civil Wars
These wars were fought between the Anglican, Catholic, and Calvinist churches for economic and political (parliament vs monarch) reasons as well as religious
Religion and god were being questioned, papal authority crumbled, science begins to take over
Name some impacts of the Religious Wars and Reformation
Catholics, Lutherans, Absolute Monarchs
Which three groups feared the scientific revolution? The _______ feared religious explanation being overturned. The ________ feared biblical explanation would be overturned. The _______ feared Divine right of kings would be overturned.
Divine Right of Kings
The most frequently used method of legitimization of power by Absolute Monarchs, the idea that they had god given right to rule
Legitimation of Power
The reasons given for an individuals right to rule (Diving right of kings, mandate of heaven, etc....)
By the scientific revolution, the role of churches in political and social affairs __________ (decreased or increased?)
The belief that the Earth is the center of the universe.
The belief that the sun is the center of the universe.
Empyrean Heaven
The outer circle of the universe where God resides.
Nicolaus Copernicus
This Polish astronomer first discovered and proposed the Heliocenric model.
Galileo Galilei
This Italian astronomer/physicist invented the modern telescope and gathered evidence to support the Copernican Heliocentric model.
Johannes Kepler
This man discovered that planets have not round, but elliptical orbits.
Isaac Newton
This English scientist explained gravity and how the universe was a machine, and so humans could understand how it worked.
The belief that God is the creator of the universe, but s/he doesn't impact human events
The Four Humors
Blood, Yellow Bile, Black Bile, and Phlegm
Blood, Yellow Bile, Black Bile, and Phlegm
Name the four humors.
The Enlightenment
The French intellectual movement based on social studies, the use of knowledge to improve society, and rationality.
Intellectuals of the Enlightenment who criticized the old order.
Adam Smith
This Scottish writer wrote "Wealth of Nations", supporting Laissez-Fair economics
A French word meaning a policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy, literally meaning "let them do", meaning let the people do what they want.
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by checks and balances)
Estates General
The name of the French parliament not allowed to meet by an absolutist monarch
The middle class was called the ___________
King Louis XIV
The monarch with a grand palace at Versailles in which nobles resided and stayed out of political affairs.
The French imposed high ________ ( a form of taxes) on incoming goods to keep money in France.
Edict of Fontainebleau
This edict basically reverses the Edict of Nantes, making Calvinism illegal which leads to the emigration of Hugenots to the Holy roman Empire.
Standing Army
The name for the army of 400,000 of King Louis XIV that was ready to fight at any minute
What country tries to imitate France in its absolutism?
A leading German state in the Holy Roman Empire that struggled with non contiguous lands and decentralization.
The family that ruled Prussia.
A leading German state that assumed control of Hungarian and Slavic nations and struggled with the nationalism of the Slavs, leading into World War I
Treaty of Karlowitz (1699)
This Austrian treaty pushed back the Ottoman invasion into Europe and led it out of Europe (must know date)
Netherlands and Britain
The 2 non absolutist parliament/monarch based states that were both strong commercial powers in Europe.
Glorious Revolution
This revolution ends the English civil wars and leads into a peaceful take over by William and Mary of Holland.
Bill of Rights
Grants basic civil liberties to the people of England.
Tudor Dynasty
The dynasty that begun in England with the war of the roses
Niccolo Machiavelli
This renaissance thinker argued that it is better to be feared than loved and that the ends justified the means.
English Civil War
The wars between Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell) and the Monarch over his absolutist policies, the parliament wins and beheads the king (radical movement)
Catholic/absolute monarchy
The Glorious revolution eliminates the possibility of a _______/_______ monarchy in England with a constitution and bill or rights.
A group of people with a common language and culture
The 7 Years War
The European name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
Great War for Empire
The Indian name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
French-Indian War
The American name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
Who won the 7 years war? (If all else fails, take a guess. France never wins. EVER. Militarily, France absolutely sucks.)