The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th-16th centuries (also known as the rebirth)
A Renaissance scholar devoted to Humanism, italian scholars grammar, history, poetry rhetoric, education important to them, becoming involved in politics, art, human dignity, human individual achievement.
art technique used for the first time in the renaissance, depth, life like
Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet; full name Michelangelo Buonarroti. A leading figure of the High Renaissance
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe, praise of folly, criticized fasting, Churchs interpretation of the bible.
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616).
A grant by the pope of remission of the temporal punishment in purgatory still due for sins after absolution. The unrestricted sale of indulgences by pardoners was a widespread abuse during the later Middle Ages
95 Theses
Written by Martin Luther in 1517 and widely regarded as the primary catalysts for the Protestant Reformation.
Henry VIII
Son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547; his divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and his excommunication 1538, leading to the start of the Reformation in England (1491-1547)- crazy, henry left church and created anglican church
A system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god Edict of Nantes
Council of Trent
A council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther- acted to abolish the selling of indulgences, formed jesuits (society of jesus, started by Ignatius Layola).
Protestant reformers
theologians, churchmen, and statesmen whose careers, works, and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century.
Ignatius de Loyola
A Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General.
predicted weather, included calendars maps medical advice.
Italian renaissance
The early period when Italy was the center of the Renaissance. started ancient world to explore acheivements, emphasis on power of human reason, humanists and humanism, desidius erasmus
Niccolo Machiavelli
A statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527). wrote essay the prince which describes gov't, humanist, strict person believed that rulers should be strict, only thing ruler should be concerned about is success "better to be feared than to be loved."
Leonardo da vinci
Italian painter, scientist, and engineer. His paintings include The Last Supper (1498) and the Mona Lisa (1504-05). engineer, architect, scientists, inventor, artist.
Johannes Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Thomas Moore
Irish poet who wrote nostalgic and patriotic verse (1779-1852). published utopia, criticized gov't, start of communism, was canonized as a saint for saying that henry wasn't the head of church because the pope is the head of the church.
Protestant Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
Peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
The theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone, believe in riteous living, predestination, very strict and Puritanism is the same thing.
opposition of revolution, churches fighting back, attempt to become more spiritual, campaign to stop protestants.
a religious order in the Catholic Church, known for their open-mindedness and high regard for education, patholocism, related a lot to humanists, they believed in education and started colleges, very low life standards and maintenance.
sheets of paper , first newspapers, single distributed sheets.
Why did the Renaissance take place?
crusaders and trade brought them into contact with Byzantine Civilization, also trade in asia and Africa helped Italians learn form advancement in medicine and science, arabs africans had more advancements that Europeans.
Where did the Renaissance start?
How & where did Renaissance spread after Italy?
spread north because of humanists, reformation break in catholic church, if wasnd for rennaissance, reformation wouldn't have happened.
What process aided in the spreading of Renaissance ideas?
printing press, first used in china, but eurpoeans didn't know about it and johannes Ghutenberg invented it in europe, scribes were mad, printed books would not last as long, people thought handwriting was prettier, made easy for humanists to spread ideas.
Where was a printing press first used in the world?
Who brought the printing press to Europe?
Johannes Gutenberg
Who was unhappy with Gutenberg's invention?
What impact did the printing press have upon the humanists?
humanist ideas were being spread to much larger audiences
What effect did humanists criticism have on the Catholic Church?
led to split in church
What allegations did the humanists make against the Catholic Church?
seemed church was more interested in money than the souls of the people, thought popes were too political instead of moral leadership, acted more like politicians and warriors than leaders in morality and god. some priests engaged in misconduct, sale of indulgences.
Where did the first break in the Catholic Church take place? And Why?
non unified germany, rulers were weak and could not enforce rules. church sent someone to sell indulgences, then martin luther criticized the selling of the indulgences because he thought that you could not redeem yourself of sins just by buying stuff to support church, 95 theses, then was excommunicated.
Why did Martin Luther get excommunicated?
openly spoke against church doctrine, because he opposed church's beliefs.
How did Holy Roman Emperor Charles V handle Martin Luther at the Imperial Diet? Did it work?
he told him to abandon his beliefs/ideas, and no it didn't, Frederick the Wise took lither and id him and he wrote the bible in german at that time. Didn't work because the church wasn't as respected as before.
What did Martin Luther do to help German's while he was under the protection of Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony?
wrote bible in german.
How did Protestant receive their name?
because they were protesting against the catholic church, and protesting how emperor was treating lutheranism.
What were Pope Paul III's contributions to the Catholic Church?
brought inquisition to rome, burned people at the steak, BAD. worked to revive catholic church, called people to council of trent where they got rid of indulgences, tried to stop communism, index of forbidden books, council of trent- tighten discipline of clergy, stop indulgences, met three times, however, kept need for ceremonies.
To what extent was tolerance given to different religions at this time?
zero tolerance
What were the results of the Protestant Reformation?
new churches, religions in europe. new interest in education, universities are built, increase in power of national gov't, power of pope/church power decreases. counter reformation- led to increase in power of gov't, popes power goes down.
When did a lot of witch-hunting take place in Europe & when did it stop?
began in mid 1500 lasted for 100 years, came to US as Salem Witch Trials, ended when religious wars ended.
What effect did the Black Death have on the standard of living in Europe?
many peasants become free, demand for labor increased, strife.
What benefits were there from living in a city at this time?
people to distribute food, distribution of goods, there was food storage, military, quarentine the sick, safety in numbers.
What replaced people's belief in superstition & witchcraft?
rational thought, wanted scientific evidence.
peoples lives in europe in 1500s
war, famine, plague, social political upheaval, famine, religious wars, many people move form country to city, (urbanization).