Thomas Jefferson
3rd president, wrote declaration of independence, Louisiana purchase, Virginia delegate
Alexander Hamilton
leader of the Federalists,1st Secretary of the Treasury, national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt
Edmund Genet
French diplomat, hoped to persuade America it to declare war in Britain,endangered American neutrality in the war between France and Britain, and he was eventually stopped when both the American and French wanted him to.
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population (bicameral legislature)
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
minimum number of members necessary to conduct a meeting
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial/economic affairs
Aaron Burr
He is chiefly remembered as the man who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804. In the Election of 1800, he received the same number of votes as Thomas Jefferson. With no clear winner, the Constitution provided that the House of Representatives elect one of the two highest vote getters. Hamilton's influence helped secure the election of Jefferson for president. As vice president, he engaged in a scheme to establish several states in what was then the western United States as an independent country. This plan to help these areas secede from the United States was a treasonable offense and almost resulted in his conviction in 1807.
Marbury vs Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
John Marshall
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
Writ of Mandamus
Court order directing an official to perform an official duty
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the 9th President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
The African American slave who explored the Louisiana Purchase with Lewis and Clark. Became a celebrity with the Native-Americans who had never seen a black man before.
native american woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the lewis and clark expedition
the act of plagiarizing, robbery on the high seas
James Fennimore Cooper
a prolific and popular American writer, He wrote many sea-stories, historical novels and Romantic Novels, "The last of the Mohicans" and "Leatherstocking Tales"
Washington Irving
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Herman Melville
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
Barbary Pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Black Hawk
Sauk leader who in 1832 led Fox and Sauk warriors against the United States (1767-1838) Feature Article Fin 486 Final Exam
Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry
-Built a small fleet, and was in charge of meeting up with the British, American naval officer who won the battle of Lake Erie
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Internal Improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Erie Canal
an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
National Road
first federal interstate road, built between 1811 and 1838 and stretching from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
limited number of warships on great lakes
of or relating to fabrics or fabric making
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
closed shop
a company that hires only union members
industrial revolution
the change in social and economic organization that resulted from the replacement of hand tools with machines and from development of large scale industrial production
samuel slater
British immigrant, cotton mill, textile factory
labor unions
an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
andrew jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
john quincy adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
martin van buren
Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836 (8th president)
northwest ordinance
law that established procedure for admission of new states to the union
american colonization society
founded to encourage black emigration
a West African nation founded in 1822 by the American Colonization Society to serve as a homeland for free blacks to settle
cotton gin
a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
tallmadge amendment
missouri statehood bill, required missouri to gradually free its slaves
missouri compromise
series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain balance of power between slave and free states
favorite son
a politician favored mainly in his or her home state
dark horse
a political candidate who is not well known but could win unexpectedly
henry clay
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however., United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
attempt to ruin an opponent's reputation with insults
spoils system
the practice of winning candidates rewarding their supporters with government jobs
trail of tears
the routes along which cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the indian territory in 1838 with thousands of cherokee dying along the way
pocket veto
a bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns
a states refusal to recognize an act of congress that it consider unconstitutional
a signed written agreement between two or more parties (nations) to perform some action
panic of 1837
a US financial crisis in which banks closed and credit system collapsed, resulting in bankruptcies and unemployment
a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues
members of political party formed in 1834 to oppose policies of Andrew Jackson
an economic and political system based on government ownership of business and property and equal distribution of wealth
their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.
national republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
business that has bought right ti use parent companys name and methods
horace mann
1st secretary of massachusetts board of education, leader in public school reform movement
hudson rivers school
American painters, Painted Scenery instead of portraits, Hudson River
Horace Greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
samuel morse
new england artist, created the telegraph
seneca falls convention
a womens rights convention held in seneca falls, NY in 1848
dorothea dix
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
elizabeth cady stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
a public hall for lectures and concerts
in 1837 was the first college or university (Ohio) to offer education to both women and men.
underground railroad
system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada or to safe areas in the free state
frederick douglass
one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
william lloyd garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
people in favor of the movement to end slavery
checks and balances
a system in which each branch had different duties, so none were dominant
XYZ affair
incident in which french officials demanded a bribe from US diplomats
Judiciary act
law that established federal court system and # supreme court justices, provided appeal of certain state court decisions to federal courts
judicial review
supreme courts power to declare an act of congress unconstitutional
Louisiana Purchase
the 1803 purchase by US of France's Louisiana territory extending from Mississippi river to rocky mountains for $15 million
shawnee chief believed natives had to protect homeland against white settlers by forming confederacy-united native american nation
war hawks
one of the members of congress who favored war with britain in early years of 19th century
the forcible seizure of men for military service
treaty of ghent
treaty that ended war of 1812
the great silence
congress will ignore anti-slavery petitions
the liberator
run by william lloyd garrison
harriet tubman
leader of underground railroad, help slaves escape
oregon trail
pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country; emigrant trail
American religious sect devoted to the teachings of Ann Lee Stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships
an organized effort to prevent the drinking of alcoholic beverages
brook farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
believe in pulling away from society and being one with nature
member of church founded by joseph smith and his associates
joseph smith
founder of the mormons
brigham young
Leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (sometimes called the "Mormon Church") following the martyrdom of Joseph Smith (in 1844). He led the Mormons from Illinois to Utah. Sometimes called "The Mormon Moses."
james k. polk
president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.
guadalupe hidalgo
Treaty which ended the Mexican War; Mexico recognized Texas as part of the U. S. and the Rio Grande as the border between the nations; Mexico also gave up the Mexican Cession; U.S. agreed to protect the 80,000 Mexicans living in Texas and the Mexican Cession
Treaty: established a firm boundary between the US and Canada from Maine to Minnesota During Tyler's presidency
lone star republic
republic of texas-independent sovereign state
stephen austin
Father of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish
davy crockett
sent to deal with problems with Shawnees and Creeks; present at the Alamo, during which his fame as a bear-killer/frontiersman had already been established; taken prisoner after the battle and executed by bayonet by Santa Anna, in front of all of his men
santa anna
suspended the 1824 mexican constitution and had Austin arrested
battle of the alamo
a mission and fort in san antonio, texas where mexican forces massacred rebellious texans in 1836
sam houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
general zachary taylor
American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States.achieved fame while leading U.S. troops to victory at several critical battles of the Mexican-American War. A Southern slaveholder who opposed the spread of slavery to the territories, he was uninterested in politics but was recruited by the Whig Party as their nominee in the 1848 presidential election
general winfield scott
was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, the American Civil War.
gadsden purchase
an 1853 purchase by US of land from mexico, establishing present US-mexico boundary
john slidell
spanish speaking emissary sent to mexico to purchase california and new mexico and to gain mexican approval for rio grande as texas border
john sutter
Owner of the mill where gold was discovered that helped start the California Gold Rush, Sutter's Mill
Eli whitney
invented cotton gin
elias howe
patented first sewing machine
know nothings/ nativists
Americans who protested and sometimes rioted against Roman Catholic immigrants, "I KNOW NOTHING"
popular sovereignty
system in which residents vote to decide, rule by the people
wilmot proviso
amendment to an 1846 military appropriations bill
fugitive slave law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
roger taney
chief justice, wrote supreme courts most important majority opinion for the case
harriet beecher stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
dred scott
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
mark twain
"Huck Finn"
formal separation from an alliance or federation
put country back on gold standard
drafting of citizens for military service
during civil war, cash payment offered by northern state to encourage men to join the army
paper money not backed by equal value in gold
leaving the ranks without permission
illegal use of political influence for personal gain
john c. crittenden
Kentucky senator; in the know-nothing party; wrote the Crittenden Compromise
abraham lincoln
U.S. statesmen, 16th president. Led Union to victory in Civil War. assassinated April 14, 1865, by john Wilkes Booth. Sometimes called "Honest Abe".
john brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
obiter dictum
passing remark
stephen a. douglas
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
robert e. lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
jefferson davis
President of the Confederate States of America
john wilkes booth
assassinated president abe lincoln
ulysses s. grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
bloodiest single day/ battle in american history
gettysburg address
speech by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, key ideas were liberty, equality, and democratic ideas; purpose of war was to protect those ideas
in the American Civil War (1863) the Union armies of Hooker, Thomas, and Sherman under the command of Ulysses S. Grant won a decisive victory over the Confederate Army under Braxton Bragg
The union forces wanted to capture Vicksburg in order to control to Mississippi River. (Union) Gen. Grant surrounded Vicksburg and bombed it for a month. The people and Confederate soldiers starved until they surrendered.
bull run
At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
fort sumter
First shots of Civil War, Confederates fired upon Federal fort, fort surrenders, war begins
use of troops to prevent movement
martial law
temporary rule by military rather than civilian authority
emancipation proclamation
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
anti-lincoln activists
habeas corpus
states a person has the right to a speedy trial and the right to know why they were being held, etc
In 1814,during the WAR OF 1812, British planned another attempt to overtake New Orleans. armada of 60 ships and 11,000 men, led by Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, set off. General Andrew Jackson quickly rallied his troops and ambushed the British fleet. The American army, which consisted of soldiers, sailors, pirates, militiamen, and freed slaves, used a strategy of revolving firing lines to make sure that guns were always firing at the Redcoats. The British army was forced to retreat after it suffered more than 300 fatalities, including Major General Pakenham. This battle was an overwhelming success for the Americans and made General Andrew Jackson a hero., last battle; fought after the peace treaty was signed; put Andrew Jackson in the spotlight
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
The movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States / Caused the greatest tension between the North and South / Often disagreed on tactics / Many did not want women involved, people who wanted to outlaw slavery in US. Wm Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator newspaper; Underground RR/ Harriet Tubman; Harriet Beecher Stowe/Uncle Tom's Cabin, The effort to do away with slavery completely
after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000, after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, War lasting from 1846 to 1848 in which the US defeated Mexico and gained Mexican territory
During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas. Certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
begun about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments., the totality of the changes in economic and social organization that began about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments., the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in the United States from about 1790 to about 1850; Many technological advances including railroad technology, telegraph, and Sewing Machine, Began in the 1750's in Britain with a group of inventors perfecting textile machines. These British developments eventually found their way into American Industry. Factories were made to work with the South's raw textiles Industrialization started in the North because of its dense population, reliance of shipping, and its number of seaports The rapid rivers of the North also provided power for turning the cogs of machines The majority of the industrialization occurred between the 1790's and the 1860's