Main Ideas/Significance of Renaissance
~Enlightenment ~humanism ~materialism- not a sin to have lots of money etc. ~art- had perspective; not all Church based ~look back at roots (Greeks, Romans)
Main Ideas/Significance of the Reformation (Protestant)
Ideas: (what it was going against) ~Church had all power and was corrupt- kings were under it too Significance/Results: ~split Catholic Europe (Catholic and Protestant) ~new ideas ~tension=wars (like the French War) Response by Catholic Church: ~they thought the Protestants were wrong ~sent Jesuits
What England was like in its religion during the time of King Henry VIII?
~wanted a divorce- Pope wouldn't allow it ~created the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him the "supreme head" of the Church of England ~made Bible required in all churches ~Church of England remained fully Catholic expect for Rome
What England was like in its religion during the time of Queen Elizabeth?
~Protestantism emerged victorious during her reign ~Anglicanism took shape (a middle ground between Protestantism and Catholicism) ~appointed Protestant bishops but decided on keeping traditional clerics
Main Ideas/Significance of the Scientific Revolution
~emphasized the importance of reason ~people started to doubt their beliefs (skepticism) due to natural laws ~starting point of new discoveries about physics ~philosophers like Galileo and Newton ~birth to rational thought
Main Ideas/Significance of the Enlightenment
~ philosophers were optimistic that people were becoming more perfect due to reason ~thought natural laws were a basis for science and humans- included natural rights ~many revolutions were based on the Enlightenment
Characteristics of absolute monarchies vs. constitutional governments in early-modern Europe
Absolutism: ~king controls everything ~monarchy has divine rights Constitutionalism: ~constitution (higher than president) ~congress/parliament (voting) ~certain rights
What was the world like in terms of European colonies in the 1500-1750's?
~Trans-Atlantic slave trade ~ mercantilism ~cash crops ~trade triangle between Africa, Europe, and the Americas
Characteristics of the Industrial Revolution in Britain
What they made them fit for Industrialization: ~natural resources (water ways and coal) ~huge work force ~money (Britain was a major trade center) Results: ~boom in children ~machines making work easier
Karl Marx's Ideas
~working class (proletariat) should overthrow the government ~classless society ~capitalism is bad
Industrial Revolution's effects on women's rights
~increases schooling opportunities ~more jobs (in factories) ~idea of separation of spheres- women would keep the house clean and happy, men would come home from work and relax
Events/Ideas that influenced the American Revolution
~Enlightenment ~Glorious Revolution ~Britain raising taxes due to 7 Years War ~more mercantilism due to 7 Years War
Causes, Goals, Outcomes of the French Revolution
Causes: ~Enlightenment ~successful American Rev. ~Three Estates ~Parliament hadn't been called in years Goals: ~more democratic government Outcomes: ~they failed terribly after the rev. ~napoleon took over ~good thing: middle class emerged ~ conservationists pretended like it never happened, restored monarchy, and restricted freedoms (of speech, etc.)
Social Changes in late 1800's Europe
~dating ~later ages for marriage ~birth control and abortions were available ~"Age of Steel" ~medicinal breakthroughs (anesthesia) ~women's rights
Methods/Directions of Russian Expansion before the 1800's
~south toward the Black Sea- encountered Ottoman Empire (Turks) ~usually went for warm water ports
Ideas/Actions of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great in Russia
~both wanted a port on warm water ~both wanted to be more "Westernized" in the sense of industrialization but not politically
Main Goals/Actions of Russian tsars in the 1800's
~took the side of conservatives in the conservative vs liberalism debate ~liberal=voting-- which was BAD ~liberal=revolutionary=NAPOLEON FROM FRANCE-- REALLY BAD ~tsars wanted to keep all of the power ~expansion ~wanted to modernize without political ideas
Characteristics of peasants/laws about them in Russia 1700-1800
~serfs- tied to land- freed in 1860's ~poor ~new laws in 1700's gave nobles more power over the peasants ~redemption- had to work to earn their land
Russia's industrialization in the late 1800's
~foreign investment ~Trans-Siberian railroad ~government sponsorship
Social Classes in Latin America
~Peninsulares- Europe born ~Creoles-born in Americas but still pure European ~Mulattoes and Mestizos- mixed ~Native Americans and Slaves
Colonial Latin American Colonies
~mercantilism ~cash crops ~social classes
Goals/Outcomes of Latin American Revolutions
~Spanish out ~democracy, representative government ~common people wanted social classes gone ~had everything except for the third goal :(
Newly-Independent Latin American Nations
Politics and Economics: ~Neocolonialism ~foreign investment ~cash crops ~didn't industrialize
Slavery in Africa before Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
~did have slaves ~most were captured in battle ~temporary slavery was common for crimes ~slaves could work to but their freedom ~children of slaves weren't automatically slaves
Main Ideas of Trans Atlantic Slave trade
~Africans were thought to be inferior to Europeans ~mostly used in colonies for labor in plantations etc. ~millions of slaves were brought to the American colonies
African politics and economics between 1600-1800
~slavery was booming ~kings were rich by selling their people ~lots of political instability ~no real empires/states
South Africa before 1900
~Dutch settlers came ~ emancipation of slaves in 1833 ~Anglo-Boer War (South-African War) in 1899-1902
Reasons for European colonization in Africa in the late 1800's
~raw materials ~more civilization (no more slavery) ~nationalism (proves your a great country) ~better transportation and communication
European rule of African Countries
~imperialism ~make profit for mother country ~tried to stop ethnic conflict
Political, Economic, and Social Characteristics of the Ming and Qing dynasties in 1600's/1700's China
~civil service exam ~advanced commercial development ~internal trade ~Confucianism
Events in China in the 1800's
~Taiping Rebellion in 1851. ~Third Pandemic of Bubonic plague in 1855 ~Second Opium War in 1856. ~Tianjin Massacre ~ Sino-French War in 1884. ~First Sino-Japanese War in 1894
Main Goals of Chinese Revolutionaries
~wanted a new government
Purpose of Japan's isolation
~prevent Western influence
Policies and Actions of Japan's Government in the Meiji Period
~democracy ~no more social classes ~intensive westernization ~extreme military growth
Japan's Early Imperialism
~redefined borders to include islands ~took Korea and Taiwan
Early Characteristics of the Ottoman Empire
~main goal was expansion ~advanced military
Britain Gaining and Keeping Power in India
~established the East India company ~too control of all trading posts ~used Indian soldiers ~made treaties w Indian kings
Build Up of WW1 in Europe
~imperialism ~militarism ~nationalism ~ assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand ~alliances
Main Ideas of WW1
~trench warfare ~assassination of Franz ~alliances more on #38
Effects of Versailles Treaty
~money and land from Germany
Middle East after WW1
~UK mandates Mesopotamia (Iraq) ~give Jews land
Outcomes of Russian Revolution
~Russian Parliament ~Lenin tried Communism- gave land to peasants, wiped out foreign debt, got out of WW1
Progress of the Chinese Communists, 1920's-1940's
~accept Soviet aid in 1920 ~Mao Zedong- autumn harvest uprising
Response of Industrial Nations to the Great Depression
~tried to raise tariffs- reduce global trade ~cut spending
Characteristics of the Soviet Union under Stalin
~industrial and military power ~lots of deaths ~five year plans ~secret police
Main Ideas of the Dictators' aggression in the years leading up to WW2
~expansion ~appeasement
Main Ideas/Actions of the "Big Three" conference
~wanted no war ~league of nations ~b and f wanted Germany to be punished
Japan and Germany after WW2
~war reparations ~big three took control of these countries and tried to make them stable again
Main Actions of the US during the Cold War
~Truman Doctrine of Containment ~Marshall Plan-aid to Europe
Main reason for de-colonization in Africa and Asia during WW2
~many countries were economically weak ~Britain didn't to risk relations w US ~no more colonial uprisings
Eastern European Communist Control 1950-1980
~weak ~opposed by LoN ~people weren't happy
Postwar Characteristics of Europe
~decolonizing ~ devastated
Main Ideas of Japan's economy after WW2
~poor, weak ~US had to hold it up ~falling apart ~now its strong
Characteristics of China under Mao Zedong
~wanted to overthrow all power ~everyone work together
Main Ideas of Israel/Palestine dispute
~Israel took more land after Palestine and friends attacked
Iraq and Iran- Conflicts and Main Ideas from 1970-1980
~war ~trench warfare
Main Ideas of the Africa independence movements
~increased nationalism ~looked at India ~no struggle
Newly-independent African Nations
~were a lot like their mother countries ~still trade w mother countries ~nationalism ~kept their cash crops
Main Ideas of Postwar Latin America
~wan't affected much ~kept cash crops