Jewish Beliefs and Democracy
Moral Freedom Written legal code Personal choice
Christian Beliefs and Democracy
All people should be equal Everyone has value and worth
When was the US Bill of Rights established?
When was the Magna Carta established?
What is the Magna Carta?
a document that said the king could not raise taxes without first consulting the great concil of nobles and chruch leaders also called the great charter
What was the declaration of independence?
A document listing the complaints against King George and stating why America needed to be free from British rule.
Who was the US Bill of Rights from?
William and Mary
Absolute monarchy
a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Constitutional monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Glorious Revolution
The overthrow of English King James II in 1688 and his replacement by William and Mary.
Ten Commandments
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
Separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Direct Democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
US Declaration of Independence
document declaring the U.S. to be independent from the British Crown
French declaration of the rights of man
French version of the Declaration of Independence after the French Revolution
Divine Right
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from God.
James 1
belived in divine rite of kings, did not get along with parliament and the Puritans
Charles 1
Enforced Divine Right. Bring more Absolutist policies to England .Also brought too much Catholic influence. Tried and Executed in 1649 as a "tyrant,traitor, murderer, and public enemy"
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
William and Mary
These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
US Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
Social Contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
a Protestant group that wanted to reform, or purify the Church of England
French Revolution
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
American Revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government (seperation of powers)
English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan (1651), in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Third Estate
Largest of the Three Estates, made up of Bourgeoisie, Peasants, and Urban Workers. Had the least money and power but paid the virtually all of the taxes.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
name of the Austrian ruling family who controlled that land as well as Spain, Netherlands, and part of Italy
Madame Deficit
Marie Antoinette's nickname
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Bastille Day
a legal holiday in France celebrating the storming of the Paris bastille in 1789
Underlying causes of the French Revolution
1) Inequalities of the social system 2) The opposition of the intellectuals to the status quo 3) The absolute power of the French monarchy 4) Personal inadequacies of kings 5) Financial crisis- France is going bankrupt
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
Napoleon's accomplishments
Napoleon... 1) set up method of tax collection 2) established a national banking system 3) dismissed corrupt officials 3) set up lycées 4) signed a concordat 5) made Napoleonic code
Napoleon's empire
The empire ruled by Napoleon; composed of three parts: the French Empire (the inner core of the grand empire), the dependant states (under the rule of Napoleon's relatives) and allied states (those defeated by Napoleon)
Scorched-earth policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Goal of the Congress of Vienna
wanted to check French ambitions but they had to keep France powerful enough to counter the powers of Prussia and Russia
Holy Alliance
Alliance of Russia, Austria, and Prussia to safeguard the principles of Christianity and maintain the international status quo after the Napoleonic Wars
Concert of Europe
Alliances devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions.
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Louis Pasteur
germ theory, developed a vaccine for rabies, pasteurization
Geographic advantages for England
They were an island
Steam Engine
1760's; James Watt; engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3X as quickly as previous engines
founder of modern communism, wrote The Communist Manifesto
developed communist theory with Karl Marx. Co-wrote the Communist Manifesto
Industrial Revolution growth of cities
Urbanization, rapid growth of cities
Enclosure Movement
This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
Labor Unions
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Industrial Revolution in England
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production.
land, labor, capitol
three factors of production
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
Views on the middle class
Lived in nice homes, business owners
A group of people that make up a corporation by sharing ownership in a certain company
Reform Movement
a movement intended to bring about social and humanitarian reforms
City Conditions
Horibble odor, no sanitation, no running water, disease, packed apartments, little light
Free-market system
Pure capitalism, in which all economic decisions are made without government intervention.
Artistic Movement
a group of artists who agree on general principles
Charles Dickens "Hard times"
-Depicted in detail his views of industry, mundane labor -Showed hypocrisy of a society that preached Christian morality but permitted abuses to go on -Exploitation of the working class fostered tensions -Dickens believed social institutions caused the misery of downtrodden -Showed realism in literature -Our excerpt described the dank, dirty city as being a machine in contrast with nature, which was peaceful though getting muddled by the industry
European Imperialist desires
A person who supports the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
Inventor of steel making process
Henry Bessemer
Inventor of telegraph
Samuel Morse
Father of Capitalism
Adam Smith
Father of Communism
Karl Marx
someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
Adam Smith's written work
The Wealth of Nations
Karl Mark's written work
The Communist Manifesto
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
an economic system based on private property and free enterprise
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
the political orientation of a utopian who believes in impossibly idealistic schemes social perfection
The theory created by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that centers on communism and its inevitability.
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Coal miners
factory poorly lighted, hot, hazardous, dust fill air, black lung, underground, family force children to work, young boys as 10 worked, bonded Unions
Child laborers
As young as 6 years old, 12-14 hour days, 6 days a week; half hour lunch, 1 hour dinner.