Black Death
Caused death of up to one third of Europeans; caused economic decline and reduced food production; people lost hope for the future
New Stone Age
Began 10,000 BC when peoplelearn to grow crops, more sophisticated tools and weapons
Luther's Teachings
Believed the Bible was a higher authority than the Pope criticized the sale of indulgences; believed salvation was through faith alone; consunstantiation; church services in the vernacular
Renaissance Scholars
main interests were in classical Greek and Roman texts; humanism - the belief in the potential of man; focused on creativity, individuality
System of rule where kings had little power and nobles controlled estates
Twelve Tables of Law
Rome's first written code of laws, protected people from arbitrary treatment
Nile River
Ancient Egyptians depended on it for irrigation and transportation, flooded predictably
System that bound peasants (serfs) to the land; manors were self-sufficient agricultural communities
court used by the Church to punish heretics
Athens - Democracy
athens was the birthplace of democracy, limited because only a minority could participate, direct because citizens voted on isues for themselves
Used by the Church as a punishment; prevented a person from receriving the sacraments
Magna Carta
Signed by King John of England in 1215; limited the power of the English monarchy; granted rights to nobles
Motives for Conquistadors
to serve god; to get rich; to increase power of Spain; adventure
new laws
passed by Spanish to protect Natives in the Americas; not enforced; too little too late
economic theory based on the idea that a nation's power was determined by its wealth; goal was for a nation to be self-sufficient; need affordable balance of trade-export more than import; set up colonies as a source of raw materials and a market for finished goods; government should regulate trade and set tariffs
commercial revolution
resulted from the Age of Exploration; changes in business practices; increased standard of living for European merchants
middle passage
refers to the trip across the Atlantic Ocean for Africans who were taken into slavery
first permanent English colony in the New World; economic success depended on growth of tobacco.
native population in spanish colonies
native population declined greatly due primarily to European diseases but also because of the brutal treatment they recieved (genocide)
triangular trade
manufactured goods from Europe to Africa and Americas; slaves from Africa to americas; raw materials from Americas to Europe.
reasons for exploration
desire to discover new trade routes and make profits; spread Christianity
edict of nantes
issued by Henry IV to give freedom to worship to Huguenots; Huguenots could worship in areas where they were a majority; repealed by Louis XIV.
Louis XIV
absolute monarch in france, "I am the state", symbol was the sun, left France in debt due to excessive spending on wars and Versailles
Thirty Years' War
Began as a religious war, Catholics w. Protestants when Ferdinand tried to force Czech Protestants to convert to Catholicism; became a war about power, as the Hapsburgs dreamed of reuniting the Holy Roman Empire.
divine right
theory that a ruler recieves his power from God; used to support absolute monarchy and the idea that the ruler is above the law.
Philip II
absolute monarch of Spain, considered himself the "defender of faith" and persecuted Muslims and Jews; sent the Spanish Armada to invade England it was defeated in 1588.
Dutch Revolt
the Dutch rebelled against Philip II because he tried to impose Catholicism in the Netherlands; the Dutch were also motivated by economic factors, since they believed they were being unfairly taxed.
Louis XIV's palace, nobles lived there so he could keep an eye on them.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Year's War, recognized the independence of 300 German states; ended the Hapsburg dream of unifying the German states/Holy Roman Empire, added Calvinism to the list of reliigous German prices could choose for their state.
Balance of Power
means that no single nation should dominate Europe; cornerstone of Elizabeth I's foreign policy.
Fredrick the Great
Fredrick II; absolute monarch of Prussia, built up the army, violated the Pragmatic Sanction when he took Silesia from Maria theresa; after the War of Austrian Succession, he kept Silesia.
Maria theresa
absolute monarch of Austria. lost Silesia to Fredrick the Great
Catherine the great
absolute monarch of Russia; allowed nobles to have control over serfs; won control of a warm-water port.
Peter the great
absolute ruler of Russia; tried to westernize Russia by sending scholars to study in the west, forced nobles to adopt western customs; moved capitals to St. Petersburg.
Wrote "Spirit of the Laws", admitted the English government, favored seperation of powers and checks and balances to limit government power, and influenced the US Constitution.
developed calculus
Thomas Jefferson
author of the Declaration of Independence; borrowed ideas from john Locke on consent of governed, natural rights, and the right to rebel against a tyrant.
Thomas Hobbes
Wrote "Leviathan", believed man was selfish and greedy, in a state of nature, people would constantly fight, absolute monarchy was necessary to prevent chaos; ruler's power came from God, people gave up all their rights to the ruler, including the right to rebel.
John Locke
Wrote "Two Treatises on Government", believed man was reasonable and cooperative, in a state of nature, people would get along, limited monarchy was the best form of government; ruler's power comes from consent of governed; people have natural rights of life, liberty, and property which cannot be taken away; people have right to rebel if ruler is a tyrant.
First to challenge the geoocentric theory, formed the heliocentric theory stating that the sun was in the center of the universe and the planets revolve around the sun in circular orbits.
Thinker of the Romantic Movement, believed Enlightenment thinkers relied too much on logic and reason; said people should rely on emotion and instinct.
Joseph II
Enlightened monarch of Austria; abolished serfdom.
Women in the Enlightenment
helped spread new ideas.
Habeas Corpus
people cannot be held in person without just cause; Habeas Corpus Bill was passed by Parliament in England.
Supports of Parliament in the English Civil War; led by Oliver Cromwell.
supports of the king during the English civil War; lost to roundheads.
Oliver Cromwell
ruled England after the Civil War in what was supposed to be a republic or commonwealth; dissolved Parliament and because Lord Protector; imposed strict Puritan rule on England.
William Laud
Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Charles I; persecuted Puritans; executed by the Long Parliament.
James II
appointed Catholics to high office; was removed from pwoer by Parliament after his wife had a son.
Charles I
believed in Divine Right and would not accept limits on his power; his abuse of power led to the English Civil War.
Petition of Right
Charles I signed it but ignored the limited it put on his power; said king, could not impose martial law, no taxes without Parliament's consent.
Boston Tea Party
Colonists threw chests of tea in Boston harbor to protect British polices; Britian repsonsed with the Intolerable Acts which closed the port of Boston and limited colonial self-government.
period after the rule of Cromwell; Charles II was the Merry Monarch; he accepted limits on his power and supported the arts and sciences; government was a limited or constitutional monarchy.
Declaratory Act
passed by Parliament after the repeal of the Stamp Act; asserted Parliament's right to tax and legislate for the colonies.
Stamp Act
Internal tax on printed materials in the colonies; led to colonial protests including a boycott; was repealed by Britian.
Charles II
King of England during the Restoration.
political part in England; tried to prevent James II from taking the throne because he was openly Catholic.
political part in England; supported the hereditary monarchy.
James I
believed in Divine Right; quarraled with Parliament over money.
Articles of Confederation
plan of government for the US after the Revolutionary War (1781-1787); gave most power to the states and set up a weak central government.
William and Mary
became rulers of England when James II was forced off the throne in the Glorious Revolution (1688); signed the English Bill of Rights.
Robert Walpole
First prime minister of England.
Louis XVI
King of France when the Revolution began; executed for treason by radicals.
Estates General
Louis XVI called for a meeting of the Estates General in 1789 to solve the financial crisis; each of the three estates recieved one vote; first estate=clergy; less than 1% of population; no taxes. Second estate=nobles, 2% of population; no taxes. Third estate=bourgeoisie, workers, peasants, 97% of population; high taxes not privileges/power.
Leader of the Committee of Public Safetuy; responsible for the Reign of Terror which executed 40,000 "enemies" of the revolution; his execution in July 1794 marked the end of the Reign of Terror.
Seized power in France in 1799 when he overthrew the Directory in a coup, Set up government run schools, Required all citizens to pay taxes, Drew up a code of laws, Preserved some ideals of the Revolution, but betrayed others, such as freedom of speech.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Adopted by the National Assembly, Guaranteed freedom of speech, freedom of religion and protection against arbitrary arrest, Did not apply to women.
Invasion of Russia
Napoleon invaded Russia because Czar Alexander violated the Continental System, The Russian's used scorched earth strategy, Napoleon refused to surrender and lost more than 500,000 soldiers to starvation and exposure.
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon's agreement with the Catholic Church, Acknowledged Catholicism as the main religion of France, Church did not receive land back that had been confiscated during the Revolution, Won Napoleon popular support.
Radicals who favored the creation of Republic.
Moderates who did not support the execution of Louis XVI.
Napoleon's Empire
At the height of his power, Napoleon controlled most of Europe except England.
Prison attached by Paris mob on July 14, 1789, Showed people supported the revolution.
Constitution of 1791
Written by the National Assembly, Created a limited monarchy.
Reign of Terror
Lasted from July 1793 to July 1794, Committee of Public Safety tried to eliminate opposition to the revolution, 40,000 victims, most from Third Estate.
National Assembly
Adopted the Declaration of Rights of Man, Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and the Constitution of 1791, Ended serfdom and feudalism.
Napoleon's final defeat at hands of British and Prussian troops, After the defeat Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena.
Defeat for Napoleon at hands of British Admiral Nelson, Ended Napoleon's chances of invading England; Napoleon resorted to economic warfare against England with the Continental System.
Tennis Court Oath
aken by members of the Third Estate, a pledge to not disband until a constitution was written.