a type a learning that involves stimulus-response connections
Classical conditioning
a simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
is a stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned
unconditioned response
unconditioned response
automatic response
Conditioned response
Conditioned response
is a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
a learned stimulus
Taste aversion
Taste aversion
learned avoidance of a particular food
occurs when the conditioned stimulus is disconnected from the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous recovery
organisms sometimes display responses that were distinguished earlier
the act of responding the same way to stimuli that seem to be similar
the act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
a person that is exposed to harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimuli are extinguished
Systematic desensitization
Systematic desensitization
People are taught relaxation techniques and then, while they are relaxed, they are exposed gradually to the stimulus they fear
a pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one,counteracting the fear
operant conditioning
people and animals learn to do certain things and not to do others because of the results of what they do
is the process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
Primary reinforcement
reinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of an organism
Secondary reinforcement
Must be learned
Positive reinforcers
Positive reinforcers
increase the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are applied
Negative reinforcers
Negative reinforcers
increase the frequency of the behavior that follows when they are removed
schedule of reinforcement
when and how often reinforcement occurs
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement of behavior every time a behavior occurs
a way to teach complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the total activity
each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until the final action is achieved
Latent learning
learning that remains hidden until needed
observational learning
acquiring skills knowledge and skills by observing