1 Summary Behaviorism focuses on...

-observable aspects of learning

1 Summary Conditioning occurs when...

-a conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus
6.1 Summary Why do psychologists believe that classical conditioning evolved?
-b/c it helps animals learn adaptive responses--responses that facilitate survival

1 Summary Rescorla-Wagner Model

-cognitive model of classical conditioning -states that degree to which conditioning occurs is determined by extent to which US is unexpected or surprising, w/ stronger effects occurring when a novel or unusual CS is used in conditioning
6.1 Summary Classical conditioning explains...
-development of phobias and contributes to drug addiction -techniques based on classical conditioning may be used to treat phobias and drug addiction

1 Summary For learning to occur...

-conditioned stimulus needs to reliably predict unconditioned stimulus, not simply be contiguous with it
6.1 Summary Classical conditioning theory accounts for..


-learned association btwn neutral stimuli and reflexive behaviors
6.2 Summary Classical conditioning involves..


learned association between two events
6.2 Summary Operant conditioning involves...
learned association between a behavior and its consequences

2 Summary Why did BF Skinner develop the concept of operant conditioning?

-to explain why some behaviors are repeated and others are not
6.2 Summary Reinforcement:
-increases a behavior's likelihood of being repeated
6.2 Summary Punishment:
-reduces a behavior's likelihood of being repeated
6.2 Summary What do positive reinforcement and positive punishment involve?
-administration of a stimulus
6.2 Summary What do negative reinforcement and negative punishment involve?
-removal of a stimulus

2 Summary Variable ratio:

-slot machine pays off an average every few pulls, but you never know which pull will pay
6.2 Summary: fixed ratio:
-you are paid each time you complete a chore
6.2 Summary variable interval:
-you listen to the radio to hear your favorite song. you do not know when you will hear it
6.2 Summary fixed interval:
-when quizzes are scheduled at fixed intervals, students study only when the quiz is to be administered
6.3 Summary: How do humans learn behavior?
-by observing the behavior of others; we acquire basic and complex skills, beliefs, attitudes, habits and emotional responses by observing others (parents, peers, teachers and individuals in popular media)
6.3 Summary: Who do we tend to imitate?
-models who are attractive, high status, similar to ourselves and who we admire
6.3 Summary: When are we more likely to perform a behavior?
-when a model has been rewarded for the behavior than when a model has been punished for the behavior
6.3 Summary: Through vicarious learning...
we learn about an action's consequences
6.3 Summary: Mirror neurons:
-fire when a behavior is observed and performed, may be neural basis of imitation learning
6.4 Summary: What is associated with the experience of reinforcement?
-activation of dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens
6.4 Summary: Hebb's theory
-neurons that fire together wire together
6.4 Summary: When does LTP occur?
-when NMDA receptors are stimulated by nearby neurons
6.4 Summary: What does LTP play a role in?
-LTP in amygdala plays a role in fear conditioning
6.4 Summary: Through long-term potentiation...
intense stimulation of neurons strengthens synapses, increasing the likelihood that one's neuron's activation will increase firing of other neurons
Before Conditioning: Neutral Stimulus; NS
-Stimulus that initially produces no specific response (leash)
Before Conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus
-Stimulus that produces a response without prior learning (food)
Before Conditioning: Unconditioned Response
-Response that doesn't have to be learned -drooling, wagging tail
After Conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus; CS:
-stimulus that produces a response only after learning -formerly the neutral stimulus -bell
After Conditioning Conditioned Response
-learned response to a conditioned stimulus -drooling, tail wagging
Before and After Conditioning: Odie:
1) Neutral Stimulus: bell; No response 2)Unconditioned stimulus: food; Unconditioned Response: drooling, tail wagging AFTER CONDITIONING: 3)Conditioned Stimulus: bell Conditioned Response: drooling, tail wagging
-gradual formation of association btwn US and CS -bell (US) is presented with food (CS) every time
-Weakening of Conditioned Response (drooling, tail wagging) due to repeated presentation of Conditioned Stimulus (bell) without Unconditioned stimulus (food) -bell is not presented with food multiple times, Odie isn't excited
Spontaneous Recovery:
-Reemergence of extinguished response after presentation of Conditioned Stimulus (bell)
Stimulus generalization:
-stimulus that are similar, but not identical to CS (bell), produce the CR (drooling, tail wagging) EX:desk bell, sounds very similar to hand bell
Stimulus discrimination:
differentiating between similar stimuli when only one is consistently associated with the US EX:sleigh bells sound much different than hand bells
Second-Order conditioning:
-Conditioned Stimulus (bell) becomes associated with other stimuli associated with the US (food) -Why learned associations can be so complex -bell makes Odie drool -light bulb presented with bell multiple times -light bulb makes Odie drool
Define mirror neurons:
-neurons that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs the action that was observed -active when both observing and performing an action EX: same activity in the same region of the brain when the monkey holds the banana and when the monkey sees the banana being held
Define latent learning:
-learning that takes place in absence of reinforcement -EX: occurs when person learns something simply by observing it; when most people drive for the first time, they do not need to be told that rotating the steering wheel turns the car
Define partial-reinforcement extinction effect:
-greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement -continuous reinforcement=learner can easily tell when reinforcement has stopped -when behavior is reinforced only some of the time, learner needs to repeat behavior comparatively more times to detect absence of reinforcement
define shaping:
-operant conditioning technique -reinforce behaviors that are increasingly similar to desired behaviors EX: get dog to surf!