Behaviorism focuses on...
-observable aspects of learning
Conditioning occurs when...
-a conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus
Why do psychologists believe that classical conditioning evolved?
-b/c it helps animals learn adaptive responses--responses that facilitate survival
-cognitive model of classical conditioning
-states that degree to which conditioning occurs is determined by extent to which US is unexpected or surprising, w/ stronger effects occurring when a novel or unusual CS is used in conditioning
Classical conditioning explains...
-development of phobias and contributes to drug addiction
-techniques based on classical conditioning may be used to treat phobias and drug addiction
For learning to occur...
-conditioned stimulus needs to reliably predict unconditioned stimulus, not simply be contiguous with it
Classical conditioning theory accounts for..
-learned association btwn neutral stimuli and reflexive behaviors
Classical conditioning involves..
learned association between two events
Operant conditioning involves...
learned association between a behavior and its consequences
Why did BF Skinner develop the concept of operant conditioning?
-to explain why some behaviors are repeated and others are not
-increases a behavior's likelihood of being repeated
-reduces a behavior's likelihood of being repeated
What do positive reinforcement and positive punishment involve?
-administration of a stimulus
What do negative reinforcement and negative punishment involve?
-removal of a stimulus
-slot machine pays off an average every few pulls, but you never know which pull will pay
-you are paid each time you complete a chore
-you listen to the radio to hear your favorite song. you do not know when you will hear it
-when quizzes are scheduled at fixed intervals, students study only when the quiz is to be administered
How do humans learn behavior?
-by observing the behavior of others; we acquire basic and complex skills, beliefs, attitudes, habits and emotional responses by observing others (parents, peers, teachers and individuals in popular media)
Who do we tend to imitate?
-models who are attractive, high status, similar to ourselves and who we admire
When are we more likely to perform a behavior?
-when a model has been rewarded for the behavior than when a model has been punished for the behavior
Through vicarious learning...
we learn about an action's consequences
-fire when a behavior is observed and performed, may be neural basis of imitation learning
What is associated with the experience of reinforcement?
-activation of dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens
-neurons that fire together wire together
When does LTP occur?
-when NMDA receptors are stimulated by nearby neurons
What does LTP play a role in?
-LTP in amygdala plays a role in fear conditioning
Through long-term potentiation...
intense stimulation of neurons strengthens synapses, increasing the likelihood that one's neuron's activation will increase firing of other neurons
Neutral Stimulus; NS
-Stimulus that initially produces no specific response (leash)
-Stimulus that produces a response without prior learning (food)
-Response that doesn't have to be learned
-drooling, wagging tail
Conditioned Stimulus; CS:
-stimulus that produces a response only after learning
-formerly the neutral stimulus
-learned response to a conditioned stimulus
-drooling, tail wagging
Before and After Conditioning:
1) Neutral Stimulus: bell;
2)Unconditioned stimulus: food;
Unconditioned Response: drooling, tail wagging
3)Conditioned Stimulus: bell
Conditioned Response: drooling, tail wagging
-gradual formation of association btwn US and CS
-bell (US) is presented with food (CS) every time
-Weakening of Conditioned Response (drooling, tail wagging) due to repeated presentation of Conditioned Stimulus (bell) without Unconditioned stimulus (food)
-bell is not presented with food multiple times, Odie isn't excited
-Reemergence of extinguished response after presentation of Conditioned Stimulus (bell)
-stimulus that are similar, but not identical to CS (bell), produce the CR (drooling, tail wagging)
EX:desk bell, sounds very similar to hand bell
differentiating between similar stimuli when only one is consistently associated with the US
EX:sleigh bells sound much different than hand bells
-Conditioned Stimulus (bell) becomes associated with other stimuli associated with the US (food)
-Why learned associations can be so complex
-bell makes Odie drool
-light bulb presented with bell multiple times
-light bulb makes Odie drool
Define mirror neurons:
-neurons that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs the action that was observed
-active when both observing and performing an action
EX: same activity in the same region of the brain when the monkey holds the banana and when the monkey sees the banana being held
Define latent learning:
-learning that takes place in absence of reinforcement
-EX: occurs when person learns something simply by observing it; when most people drive for the first time, they do not need to be told that rotating the steering wheel turns the car
Define partial-reinforcement extinction effect:
-greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement
-continuous reinforcement=learner can easily tell when reinforcement has stopped
-when behavior is reinforced only some of the time, learner needs to repeat behavior comparatively more times to detect absence of reinforcement
-operant conditioning technique
-reinforce behaviors that are increasingly similar to desired behaviors
EX: get dog to surf!