The ____ approach focuses on comparisons of behavior across countries as well as on the behavior of individuals from different ethnic and cultural groups within a country.
According to the ____ approach, human behavior is primarily controlled by an individual's mental processes.
The ____ approach emphasizes a person's positive qualities and capacity for positive growth.
Which of the following schools of thought focuses on the unconscious aspects of human thought and behavior? behaviorism, humanistic, cognitive, psychoanalysis
____ believed that psychology should be about what people do, and should not concern itself with what cannot be seen (e. g. , internal states such as thoughts, feelings, and goals).
Zimand is studying the association between the functioning of specific brain structures and depression. It is likely that Dr. Zimand specializes in the ____________ approach to psychology.
structuralism / functionalism
Wilhelm Wundt was the founder of ____________, whereas William James was the founder of __________.
skepticism, critical thinking, curiosity
The heart of the scientific method is based on ____.
believed that most of human behavior is caused by dark, unpleasant, unconscious impulses pressing for expression.
____ seeks to understand the truths of human life in all its dimensions, including people's best and worst experiences.
myths gave way to THIS; The rational investigation of the underlying principles of being and knowledge.
Western philosophy; thought and behavior; mind and the body
_____ came of age in ancient Greece in the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.
E. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and others debated the nature of ___ and ___, including the possible link between the ____ and the ____
Later philosophers, especially René Descartes, argued that the mind and body were completely _____, and they focused their attention on the mind.
THIS grew out of this tradition of thinking about the mind and body.
natural sciences of biology and physiology
In addition to philosophy, psychology also has roots in the
a German philosopher-physician, who put the pieces of the philosophy-natural science puzzle together to create the academic discipline of psychology
performed an experiment to measure the time lag between the instant a person heard a sound and when that person pressed a telegraph key to signal that he had heard it.
WHO'S study was about the workings of the brain: He was trying to measure the time it took the human brain and nervous system to translate information into action.
At the heart of this experiment was the idea that mental processes could be measured.
Wundt and his collaborators concentrated on discovering the basic elements, or "structures," of mental processes. Their approach was called
focus on identifying the structures of the human mind
The method wundt used in the study of mental structures was
From WHO's perspective, the key question for psychology is not so much what the mind is (that is, its structures) as what it is for (its purpose or function)
James's view was eventually named
probed the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the environment.
looking inside the mind and searching for its structures, functionalists focused on what was going on in human interactions with the outside world and trying to understand the purpose of thoughts.
If _____ is about the "what" of the mind, ____ is about the "why."
how it makes an organism better able to survive
saw the mind as flexible and fluid, characterized by constant change in response to a continuous flow of information from the world.
stream of consciousness
James called the natural flow of thought a
functionalism fit well with the theory of
natural selection proposed by British naturalist
published his ideas in On the Origin of Species
an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and, importantly, produce offspring.
Darwin noted that members of any species are often locked in competition for scarce resources such as food and shelter.
the process by which the environment determines who wins that competition is called?
Darwin asserted that organisms with biological features that led to survival and reproduction would be better represented in
by natural selection
Over many generations, organisms with survival and reproduction characteristics would constitute a larger percentage of the population. Eventually this process could change an entire species. If environmental conditions changed, however, other characteristics might become favored by _____, moving the process in a different direction.
genetic mutation; adaptive
According to evolutionary theory, species change through random ____ That means that essentially by accident, some members of a species are born with genetic characteristics that make them different from other members. If these changes are ___ (for example, if they help those giraffes compete for food, survive, and reproduce), they become more common in members of the species
Darwin's theory continues to influence psychologists today because it is strongly supported by ____
which is a focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
is the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system.
emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion
_____scientists believe that thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain.
emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants. It focuses on an organism's visible interactions with the environment—that is, behaviors, not thoughts or feelings
The psychologists who adopt behavioral approach are called
John B. Watson and B.
Under the intellectual leadership of ___ and ____ behaviorism dominated psychological research during the first half of the twentieth century
B. F. Skinner
emphasized that psychology should be about what people do—their actions and behaviors—and should not concern itself with things that cannot be seen, such as thoughts, feelings, and goals. He believed that rewards and punishments determine our behavior.
not every behaviorist today accepts the earlier behaviorists' rejection of thought processes, which are often called
emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives (such as the drive for sex) and society's demands, and early childhood family experiences.
Practitioners of WHICH approach believe that sexual and aggressive impulses buried deep within the unconscious mind influence the way people think, feel, and behave.
the founding father of the psychodynamic approach, theorized that early relationships with parents shape an individual's personality.
wHO'S theory was the basis for the therapeutic technique that he called psychoanalysis
involves an analyst's unlocking a person's unconscious conflicts by talking with the individual about his or her childhood memories, dreams, thoughts, and feelings
emphasizes a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose one's destiny.
Why type of psychologists stress that people have the ability to control their lives and are not simply controlled by the environment
These psychologists theorize that rather than being driven by unconscious impulses (as the psychodynamic approach dictates) or by external rewards (as the behavioral approach emphasizes), people can choose to live by higher human values such as altruism and free will
unselfish concern for other people's well-being
Many aspects of WHICH optimistic approach appear in research on motivation, emotion, and personality psychology
According to THIS type of psychologist, your brain houses a "mind" whose mental processes allow you to remember, make decisions, plan, set goals, and be creative
emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems
Which psychologists view the mind as an active and aware problem-solving system
This view contrasts with the behavioral view, which portrays behavior as controlled by external environmental forces; this views, an individual's mental processes are in control of behavior through memories, perceptions, images, and thinking.
uses evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors.
This type of psychologists argue, the way we adapt is traceable to problems early humans faced in adapting to their environments
These psychologists believe that their approach provides an umbrella that unifies the diverse fields of psychology
examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior
This type of psychologist argue that understanding a person's behavior requires knowing about the cultural context in which the behavior occurs
focuses not only on comparisons of behavior across countries but also on the behavior of individuals from different ethnic and cultural groups within a country
founded the academic discipline of psychology.
was first studied by Wundt and his collaborators
focused on the basic elements or structures of mental processes
was the method used to study these mental structures. Individuals were asked to think about what was occurring mentally as events were taking place.
These studies focused mainly on sensation and perception, because those were the aspects that could be broken down into component parts.
theory concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind in individuals' adaptation to the environment
theory that meshed well with another intellectual development, Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection.
_____ were looking inside the mind, while ______ were focusing on how humans interacted with the outside world
emphasizes the study of the body, especially the brain and the nervous system.
is the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system.
study that emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion.
emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.
John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner
the first behaviorists
emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society's demands, and early family experiences.
the founder of the psychodynamic approach
believed that a person's early interactions with his or her parents were the major factor that shaped an individual's personality.
emphasizes a person's positive qualities, his or her capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.
the approach that psychologists stress that people have the ability to control their lives and avoid being manipulated by the environment.
emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, how we perceive, how we remember, and how we think and solve problems.
uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and the concept of the survival of the fittest as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors
psychologists believe that THIS approach provides an umbrella that unifies the diverse fields of psychology
emphasizes the ways in which the social and cultural environments influence behavior.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
everything that a person does that can be directly observed
the internal thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be directly observed.
is everything we do that can be directly observed—two people kissing, a baby crying, a college student riding a motorcycle to campus.
are the thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly
is the process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence
THIS means asking ourselves how we know something, question and test what some people say are facts, examine research to see how soundly it supports an idea, reduces the likelihood that conclusions will be based on unreliable personal beliefs, opinions, and emotions.
practicing science means being
Scientists believe that one of the best ways to be objective is to use ___ to learn about the world
Using the _____ means gaining knowledge through observation of events and logical reasoning
Being THIS involves trying to see things as they really are, not just as we would like them to be; means waiting to see what the evidence tells us rather than going with our hunches and knowing that we have to have sound evidence before answering that question.