Seven Years War 1756-1763
England vs. France England wins India and midwest territories in the US Both countries raised taxes
The Englightenment
liberal movement that applied Scientific Revolution to everyday life; most philosophers were French
John Locke
most influential to Revolutions/Declarations; believed people are born good, have natural rights, limited government, citizens have duty to overthrow bad governments
Jean Jacques Rousseau
believed in minimum government control, collective good, hated oppression, valued the majority
Thomas Hobbes
not as liberal; wrote Leviathan; believed in social order because people were born bad
believed in division of government powers
inspired 1st Amendment: freedom of religion, speech, and press; was against monarchy, brought ideas from China
Catherine the Great of Russia & Frederick of Prussia; patronized the Enlightenment
Benjamin Franklin
believed in earning opportunity through merit not heredity
English colonial problems post-1763
conflict with Natives over fur trade / taxation without representation / Proclamation of 1763 & Quebec Act 1774
new colonial taxes
Stamp Act: on everyday products Townshend Act: on goods from Europe used in small businesses Tea tax: East Indian Company had monopoly on Indian tea
Sons of Liberty
at front of protests against British
Boston Massacre 1770
colonial propaganda against the British; 5 civilians killed by British soldiers
"Common Sense"
written by Thomas Paine to spur revolution among colonists
Intolerable Acts
punishment for NE colonies after Boston Tea Party. 1- Boston harbor shut down/regulated by British 2- Marshall law (British military runs government)
Continental Congress
1775; formed army with General Washington; tried to implement colonial currency
supported by slaves & Amerindians
American allies
France (navy, training, resources) Spain & Netherlands (weapons)
Battle of Yorktown
1778, Washington defeats Cornwallis
Treaty of Paris 1783
officially ended the American Revolution, Britain recognized US as independent
Articles of Confederation
aimed at keeping national government weak, short term president, no taxes; accomplished nothing
Constitutional Convention 1787
formed new and improved US Constitution: taxes, majority vote, centralized
Estates General
First Estate: clergy Second Estate: nobles Third Estate: peasants, merchants, artisans, bourgeoisie 98% of population
National Assembly
collectively unifies Third Estate, wrote up Declaration of Rights of Man, was called for arrest
"French disease"
Austria and Prussia threatened to interfere in French Revolution, National Assembly declared war on them in 1971
Storming of Bastille
July 14, 1789: beginning of French Revolution
"humane" execution method, symbol of violent French revolution
The Terror
1793-1794: Robespierre's ruthless, bloody, dictatorial rule of the French Revolution
National Convention
radical liberal group (Jacobins & Girondists & more extreme Mountain faction), hated the Church
Maximilien Robespierre
leader of National Convention Mountain faction; executed anyone who supported monarchy, eventually arrested and executed
The Directory
5 man group elected after The Terror; got nothing done
Napoleon Bonaparte
popular authoritarianism; limited Church; liberal reforms; forced French culture upon conquered people; repressed women & freedoms of speech/press
Gens de Couler
free colored people in Haiti who led Haitian Revolution
Saint Dominique
sugar production = brutal slavery & wealth
Toussaint Louverture
led Haitian Revolution, was imprisoned in France
Haitian Revolution
1794 -1804
American Revolution
1776 - 1783
French Revolution
1789 - 1792
Congress of Vienna
Napoleon's enemies (Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria) meet up to reestablish monarchy and conservatism, results in Holy Alliance that represses liberalism/nationalism in Spain & Italy
Greek independence
from Ottomans in 1830s
War of 1812
US declares war on England after they kidnap American shipmen as impressment to blockade France; US is forced to industralize, ends up winning
Corn Laws
50% tax on corn in Britain, gets people to vote indirectly
Revolutions of 1848
all across continental Europe, including second French Revolution (monarchy overthrown forever)
industrializing European nations by 1850
England, Wales, France, Belgium, Germanic states
5 innovations that led to industrial economy
mass production (division of labor), mechanization, iron manufacturing, steam engine, electric telegraph
led by Lovett and O'Connor; appealed to miners/industrial workers; left a legacy but was rejected
Muhammad Ali
driving force of Egyptian industrialization, built up Egyptian economy/military, ordered peasants to grow cotton
Why did imperial countries fuel the Industrial Revolution?
They were more advanced and had lots of resources.
causes of the Industrial Revolution
1- population growth 2- agricultural revolution 3- trade/inventiveness 4- england
Technological Revolution
mass production (pottery), mechanization (cotton industry), iron industry (cheap), steam engine (most revolutionary invention, allowed deeper travel), railroads (triggered coal industry)
Latin American Revolution
1810-1825; started by creole elites who feared lower classes taking control; inspired by Napoleon and Enlightenment
economic system supported by Adam Smith (father of economics) where the government has no intervention in the economy and it is self regulated by the people
utopian socialists; Robert Owen
Simon Bolivar
led Venezuela's independence, inspired others, was a smart, military elite, led by force/charisma to gain mulattoes/slaves/natives as allies, promised them gains but lied
Jose de San Martin
led Southern Liberation Forces
Gran Columbia
formed in 1824; confederation of newly independent Latin American states
Mexican Independence
1810-1823; was Spain's richest colony; priests Hidalgo & Morelos led violent rebellions and were crushed by loyalists; second rebellion by Agustin de Iturbide won independence in 1821
Brasilian Independence
King John VI ruled in Brazil until 1821; Pedro stayed in Brazil and declared himself king with an independent constitutional monarchy, his liberal policies made him unpopular, he abdicated in favor of his son who reigned till 1889
power turnovers in Latin America
had no experience with constitutionalism unlike US and Canada; had bad influences from Napoleon
Personalist leader
aka Populist leader. sought to represent the people and undermine the constitutional order and move toward dictatorship
US Civil War
1860-1865; example of regionalism in the US
European intervention in Latin America
mostly successful; Spanish American War 1898, US gained Cuba, PR, DR, Guam, Philippines); US annexes Texas; French invasion of Mexico
US abolishes slavery
1865- 13th Amendment
Brazil abolishes slavery
Cuba abolishes slavery
Puerto Rico abolishes slavery
Russia abolishes slavery
American immigration
as slave trade ends, immigration from Europe and Asia to the Americas increased
Feminist movement
second half of 19th century, women's rights progressed slowly, Western countries; only upperclass women were politically active
nonindustrialized nation depends on industrialized nation economically, is only politically independent
sphere of influence
intimidation is used to influence another country's decisions
native leader appointed, dominant government has influence, indirect rule
colony annex
colonizing directly, often violently
crown jewel of Britain
India (cotton, tea, spices, gold, rice, etc)
independent de facto rulers of regions of India after Mughal Empire fell
Company Men
from the British East India Company; est. trading posts and hired sepoys for protection; pushed out French and forced the Mughal to recognize them as "Bombay Presidency"
Indian soldiers hired by English men
the British Company's rule of India; administrative/social reform placed less emphasis on caste, aculturation, Christianity; supported Indian customs through superficial parades
Before 1850s...
the English created a government that relied on sepoy military that disarmed Indian warriors, protected Christian missionaries.English's private lands, endorsed "traditional" rituals
Indian elites
benefited from British political and economic influence while poor was oppressed
Indian textile industry
collapsed due to competition with British industrialization
Sepoy Rebellion 1857
Sepoys revolt against British; was a severe shock to British; British government now assumes control of India
causes of Sepoy Rebellion
animal fat greased bullet casings were against religion; forced to travel to places outside caste restrictions; sati abolished and divorce allowed
British control of India
London in control; Indian princes kept in luxury to appease people; Durbar (fake ceremonies of Indian culture)
Indian Civil Service
for bureaucrats (Indian & British), only British had highest status
expanding production in India
British empire's money led to agricultural commodities, irrigation systems, railroads, and telegraphs, but DOES NOT INDUSTRIALIZE INDIA AS A WHOLE, only does this to benefit themselves. spread of cholera also leads to new sewage systems
Pan Indian nationalism
embracing Indian pride and some British culture
Rammouhan Roy and the Brahmo Smaj movement
Western secular values to replace caste, reforms traditional abuses of women to remove sati, Western nationalism that transcends religious differences
First Indian National Congress 1885
national/Hindu unity, service to community/education, mostly members of high castes, overall gained no widespread Indian support
Cape Colony
valuable because of strategic importance as supply station and resources en route to India
people of white descent in South Africa (French/Dutch)
Great Trek
1836 and 1839 to find new colonies on fertile high veld that had been depopulated by Zulu Wars
Southeast Asia
Singapore, Assam & Burma annexed in 1820s
British interest in
trade, not territory
first sighted by Portuguese in 17th cent., colonized by English; Aborigines and Maori died off mostly; was a penal colony
Gold in Australia
found in 1851, rush of migrants
Indian, Chinese, African, Japanese migrated to British colonies, Cuba, and Hawaii; working in sugar production
indentured servants
lower quality lives than British emigrants
gave Zulu new national identity
West Africa
slavery still existed, purified Islam & jihad; largest states in Hausa (Sokoto Caliphate); more learning centers; less rights for women as slaves take their jobs
Muhammad Ali
raised military by requiring peasants to grow cotton for exports
focused on westernization in Syria, railroads in Cairo, borrowed $$$ from France, when the market for cotton collapsed after Civil War, France and England occupy Egypt
Ethiopian kings
reconquered land in late 19th century, purchased modern weapons and began to manufacture weapons locally, resisted imperialism
David Livingstone & Henry Morton Stanley
missionaries who traced rivers in Africa
British started prohibiting people from slave trade using navy blockades
legitimate trade
Exports from Africa in the nineteenth century that did not include the newly outlawed slave trade. (gold and palm oil sold by Jaga)
Tippu Tip
formed an empire using money gained from selling ivory with high western demand
secondary empires
formed from dependency on European weapons
Sultan Mahmud II
used popular outrage (loss of Greece) to reform/rally, formed new army with no jannisaries and less religious elites (TANZIMAT REFORMS)
Tanzimat Reforms
Ottoman reform; French/German training, general education, foreign instructors, language, urban wealth, clothing, equal taxation, equal access to courts for males, women lose inheritance
The Crimean War
Russia's SW expansion bothers France & England so they fight with Ottoman allies and beat Russia
Impact of Crimean War
warfare tech, Russia discredited, Turk-French unity, percussion caps/breech rifles machine guns, railways, Trench warfare Ottoman changes: continued European model is very expensive = fiscal problems, loans, trade deficit, inflation
Turkish nationalism
law that would permit all men to vote left Muslims worried that Ottoman Empire was no longer a Muslim society, contributed to hositlities against Christians and genocide against Armenians
Young Turks
liberals who wanted westernized politics, constitutionalism, national Turkish state; 1826 granted a constitution but a coup placed a more conservative ruler in place and Ottoman was further weakened
European question
to help or destroy the Ottoman Empire
had slow development because of isolation
Great Embassy
trip taken by Peter the Great to explore Europe and bring back knowledge and reform Russia
developed relations with Europe while Ottoman eventually succumbs during 1850-1900
Qing China
restored peace and promoted expansion of agricultural economy
White Lotus Rebellion
under Qing, wanted Buddhism and Ming ways back
Opium war 1839-1850
Qin didn't take British opium trade seriously, banned opium in 1839, Lin Zenxu went to Canton to deal with British, ends w/ Treaty of Nanking which allowed British free trade and extraterritoriality
Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864
pacified poorer Chinese but fell to Chinese/British/French alliance, resulted in 20 mil deaths, depopulation, 14 years of destruction, Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, resurgence of the Plague, and decentralized China
Tongzhi Restoration
reform modeled after USA after Qing, aristocrats contributed as well as France/England; large zones with governors, in general it failed
inventions of the New Industrial Revolution
submarines, electric telegraphs, dynamite, plastics, steels, electricity = world trade increased
until 1914
value of exports from tropical countries remained high
European population
rose worldwide due to diverse diets, medicine, hospitals, etc; people also emigrated to US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina
English Midlands, German Ruhr, Tokyo Bay
pop and size grew tremendously
separate spheres
middle-class ideal where home life was separated from the workplace and womens roles were separate from mens
Victorian Age
increased cleanliness, politeness, raise children, frowned on careers, etc
working class women
domestic servants, textile factories, mothers; long hours, hard labor, sexual abuse, etc
Karl Marx
wrote Communist Manifesto, despised capitalism wanted to ranslate his intellect into political action
labor movements
formed by industrial workers to defend their interests in negotiations with employers (were accused of being communists)
Austria and Hungary
hard to unify because of multiethnic bonds and borders
usually the crucial element of creating national unity
Italian unification
popular leaders with influence favored unification, Pope and Austria opposed it as Austria lost land; added Venetia and Papal states to territory
German unification
wars led by Prussia divided German speakers among Prussia, West Austria, etc. Franco-Prussian War
nationalism after 1871
nationalism used to justify imposition of dominant religion, language, or customs on a minority pop...Social Darwinism
Otto Van Bismarck
formed loose coalition with Austria, Hungary, and Russia (Triple Alliance) which formed a strong sense of national unity
The Second Reich
Wilhelm II, keiser of Germany, emphasis on colonization
second best army to Germany; universal education; divided between Catholics and republicans; strong nationhood; popular participation in politics
stable government, disparity in wealth, expensive empire, Irish resentment, splendid isolation
nationalism weakened slavs and dominated Balkan
czar Alexander II ended serfdom in 1861
Russo-Japanese War
1904-05; fought over China, Japan won, formation of Dama in Russia
Ci Xi vs Tokugawa
westernization was difficult
Matthew C Perry
American Commodore sent by President Pierce to Japan with fleet of steam worships to demand Japan open trade in 1853
Meiji Restoration
1868-1894; military reform, industrialization, science, engineering; was easy because Japan had a history of adaptation; raised money through taxes and selling government land
Japanese Imperialism
authoritarian constitutional monarchy; sphere of influence in Korea/Manchuria/China
new imperalism
territorial conquest for reorganized new world economy/food/resources; Europeans and Americans
direct imperialism
in Africa, indirect in Latin America
motives for imperalism
political: national prestige/colonial agents cultural: missionary work, adventure, competition, nationalism economic: industrialization, demand for goods, entreprenuers
Europeans and Americans
built new imperialism because they had steamships, Suez Canal, submarine cables, Quinine, machine guns, etc
colonial administration
indigenous elite used as leaders, youth were trained for modern jobs in colonies
carried out expensive modernization in Egypt
Leopold II of Belgium
first to colonize Africa; wanted rubber from Congo; were violent
Berlin Conference 1885
imperial countries met to split up Africa
Southern Africa
had gold, diamond, crops, ports; English settlers defeated Zi;i amd Xhosa
Cecil Rhodes
used British South African Company to take over land in Central Africa = Rhodesia
Boer War 1899-1902
South African War, between English and Afrikaners; through Armistice treaty all joined collectively and formed the Union of South Africa in 1910
by Afrikaners and Union until mid 90s
Menelik II
modernized Ethiopia and resisted Italy in 1896
resisted imperialism
Spanish American War
Philippines annexed in 1898; also gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico)
Monroe Doctrine
listed Latin America off limits to anyone but USA
Panama Canal 1903
east to west travel, exploited Panama, took advantage of government
regards Ali as successor to Mohammed
accepts caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Abbasid Caliphate
flourishing and prosperous, new capital in Baghdad, Persian influence; golden age of Islam, unity was short lived, fractured into sultanates, overthrown by Mongols
Ummayad Caliphate
illegitimate usurpers, lots of discontent, luxurious living and impiety; overthrown by Abbasid
journals of Muhammad, Sunna
Sharia law
the code of law derived from the Quran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
reunified China after Sui; emperors legitimized control with Buddhism; avoided over centralization, civil service, many benefits for Buddhists, by late 9th cent. Buddhism cracked down
Song inventions
movable type, flying money, calendar, compass, junk, gunpowder, astrolabe; neo Confucianism
Zheng He
eunuch who led voyages of gigantic fleet through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa under Ming Dynasty
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages
16th century Mediterranean trade
dominated by Italy and Ottoman Muslims
Ottoman Empire
Ibn Battuta
Muslim who traveled to Mali, Persia, and India
Han and Rome
both agriculture economy, dependent on peasantry; homogenous core, expansion of pop, autonomy to local officials, cities were centers of empire, defending borders was hard
Han vs Rome
Romans were more individualistic; no social conduct standard in Rome, greater economic mobility in Rome, China had more divine leadership, Christianity prevailed over Roman tradition, Confucianism is brought back
Bantu migrations
farmers and herders who migrated south from West Africa and spread language
Hellenistic Era
under Alexander the Great; mixture and spread of Greek and Persian fused culture
chronological order
vikings > crusades > black death > columbian exchange
capital of Han and Tang; huge, million residents, most lived outside walls, curfew
capital of Mongol empire
city-state on east African coast; major trading center by 14th century
capital of the Inca empire