workers that attacked factories and machines they blamed for taking their jobs.
a momentous shift from a rural agrarian economy, in which people lived off the land and made goods by hand, to an urban manufacturing economy, in which goods were made in urban factories by machine.
enclosures 610
a large class of landless laborers, many whom eventually moved to cities to work in urban factories.
helped immunize people against diseases such as smallpox, and helped children survive to adulthood and have their own children.
conservatives 617
supporters of the old order, determines to retain past structures and ways. also called the "right" because of where their delegates sat in France's national assembly.
systems of thought intended to explain and transform society in accordance with certain political, social, and cultural ideals.
based on the concept of liberty. its political values called for constitutional governments with restricted powers, elected legislatures, and safeguards protecting peoples rights.
the antithesis of liberalism. socialists stressed equality, asserting that freedom meant little to those who had no means to enjoy it, and advocating more equitable allocation of society wealth.
(other socialists) promoted violent overthrow of the existing order.
far more pervasive than communism, nationalism is an intense devotion to ones own cultural-linguistic group, and to its embodiment in a unified, independent state.
(like nationalism a reaction against the enlightenment), was a cultural movement pervading western art, literature, poetry, and music in the late 1700's and early 1800's.
universal male suffrage
a peoples charter, drafted by reformers later called chariots, promoted this (voting rights for all men), secret ballots, annual elections, equal electoral districts, an end to property qualifications for members in parliament, and pay for its members so workers could afford serve.
woman's suffrage
a movement that worked for years to gain voting rights for women.
Irish home rule
Irish nationalists, mostly catholic, demanded domestic self-governance.
(compromise) of 1867, granting Hungarians and their long-sought autonomy by dividing the Habsburg realm into coequal self-governing Austrian and Hungarian sections.
an assembly elected to manage such needs as roads, schools, medicine, and emergency foods supplies.
a practice in which the europeans used force to colonize and exploit the people and resources of Africa and Asia.
jingoism 633
a bellicose popular nationalism in which europeans gained voting rights and education, and as newspapers booster public awareness of world affairs, many people took warlike pride in their countries' colonial conquests. named after a song sung in english pub asserting.
the adoption by non-western nations of western-style industries, technologies, institutions, and ideologies.