the political and religious successor to Muhammad (state, church, and military)
Eastern Orthodox
Branch of Christianity originating in the Byzantine Empire.
The social organization created during the Middle Ages by exchanging grants of land or fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
consists of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal in return for a form of feudal allegiance & services
pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to worship at the Ka'ba
an organization in the Roman Catholic church whom searched and punished people who didn't accept its beliefs & practices.
"submission", the self-surrender of the believer to the will of the one, true god, Allah. -originated on the Arabian peninsula -followers = Muslims -Muhammad = messenger of Allah
Designating of kinship through the mother.
Islamic temple and place of worship
The official split in 1054 of the Roman Empire into the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church.
Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
Black Death/Bubonic Plague
Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
Capital of the Byzantine Empire; constructed on the site of Byzantium, an old Greek city on the Bosporus.
Hagia Sophia
Great domed church constructed during the reign of Justinian.
Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy.
Empress Wu
(690 - 705 C.E.) Tang ruler who supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Genghis Khan
The title of Temüjin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the 'oceanic' or 'universal' leader. Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire.
Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household.
Code of Justinian
Justinian's codification of Roman law; reconciled Roman edicts and decisions; made Roman law a coherent basis for political and economic life.
Mansa Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world
a group of people, especially traders or pilgrims, traveling together across a desert in Asia or North Africa
Grand Canal
Great canal system begun by Yangdi; joined the Yellow River region to the Yangzi basin.
Ibn Battuta
Arabic traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records.
Marco Polo
-From Venice, a beautiful city of canals in northern italy -traveled extensively in the Mongol Empire (13th century)
Bantu speaking peoples
Group of people who speak the large group of sub-Saharan African languages.
Champa rice
A fast-growing, drought resistant rice from Vietnam
Junk ship
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Song dynasty
(960-1279) Empire in southern China while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics
Yuan dynasty
1271-1368 (less than a century) Mongol Empire created in China and Siberia by Kubilai Khan.
Hanseatic League
An organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
A Bantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and having official status in several countries; a member of a people of Zanzibar and nearby coastal regions, descendants of the original speakers of Swahili.
Mongol khanates
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan
Delhi sultanate
Period of 300 years when a succession of dynasties ruled much of north and central India. Rulers of each imperial house called themselves the sultans of Delhi and fought each other for control of land.
Code of Bushido
Loyalty, courage, and honor is expected from the samurai. And if one fails to meet these expectations, then they are expected to commit suicide.
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
status of peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system of the Middle ages
Turquoise Road
starting around 700C.E., the routes stretched from central American to New Mexico. The people had a fascination with the turquoise gemstone, and it was about the only thing traded in the routes and that's how it got its name. The turquoise was not only traded for beauty, it was also traded for religious value. it could only be obtained by the Anasazi peoples who lived 1000 miles to the north. the Anasazi received exotic birds and feathers, as well as agricultural goods, in return for turquoise.
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control
Tribute system
Independent countries acknowledged the supremacy of the Chinese emperor and sent ambassadors and wide and brought religion, among other things, into China.