Themes of AP World History
1. Interaction Between Humans and the environment 2. Development and Interaction of Cultures 3. State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict 4. Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems 5. Development and Transformation of Social Structures
The Nile River
Supported the Egyptians; regular flood pattern
The Tigris and Euphrates
Supported the Mesopotamians; irregular flood pattern
Yangtze and Yellow River
Supported the early Chinese civilizations; irregular flooding; yellow river had yellow-brown dust (loess); fertile soil
Indus and Ganges River
Lush, green, and fertile; river came from snow water from the mountains
Prehistory vs. History
Prehistory is before written records and history started when everything was written down
Features of a Civilization
reliable food surplus, specialized jobs, clear social classes, complex and formal government, long-distance trade, and an organized writing system
Stages of hominid development
Australopithecus- two legs, opposable thumb, tools, some verbal communication Homo Erectus- advanced tools for protection, started and tended to fires, cooked food, devise plans and coordinate activities Homo Sapiens- conscious and reflective thoughts, language, adapted to different environments by changing them to adapt to their needs
"Out of Africa" Thesis
Homo Sapiens rose in Africa and migrated to other parts of the world replacing the Homo Erectus
"Multiregional" Thesis
Humans originated in Africa and all other parts of the world then spread further in their region
Paleolithic Era
called the old stone age (from 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago); they were concerned with food supply; they used stone as well as bone tools; they were nomadic hunters and gatherers.
Neolithic Era
started about 10,000 BC. when people started to turn towards agriculture. Gave rise to Neolithic Revolution. Also called New stone age
Hunting and Gathering
the nomadic lifestyle of living where one gathers plants, berries and nuts to live on and hunts animals to survive
Neolithic Revolution
This social revolution was also known as the New Stone Age where people changed from hunting and gathering food to domesticating animals and cultivating land as farmers.
the taming of animals for human use, such as work or as food
the branch of agriculture which deals with raising animals
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock/farming
Specialization of Labor
Division of labor; individuals specialized in different types of jobs (pottery, textiles, ect.)
The science and technology of working with metals
The Bronze Age (c.3500-1200 b.c.e.)
the time period where people transferred from copper to bronze
The Fertile Crescent
the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where Mesopotamia was located
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia; Epic of Gilgamesh
Hammurabi's Code
1st written law; eye for an eye but based on social classes; 282 laws written by the Babylonian king- Hammurabi
Indo-Europeans that conquered the Chaldeans (neo-Babylonian); first to master the use of iron
the violent and intolerable people of Mesopotamia
Persian Empire
conquered the Assyrians; last peoples of Mesopotamia
Hebrews and monotheism
practiced ethical Judaism a monotheistic religion (1850 b.c.e.)
The Phoenicians
Costal people on the Mediterranean Sea; came up with the ABC's
first use of coins instead of trading and bartering
The new Babylonians, their king was king Nebuchadnezzar.
this civilization included Semitic people living north of Sumeria; united city-states of Mesopotamia; first empire in history; established by Sargon the Great
Sargon of Akkad
Akkadian king who conquered Sumeria to form the 1st empire
A group pf semi-nomadic peoples who, around 2000 B.C.E., began to migrate from central Asia to India, Europe, and the Middle East
the Egyptian Book of the Dead
written in Hieroglyphics; buried with the mummies and it held poems, songs, hymns, and instructions on getting to the afterlife
built to hold the mummies of the egyptian pharaohs and other important people
King Menes
united upper and lower Egypt, first pharaoh
ancient Egyptian 'picture' writing
Old Kingdom
most powerful; built pyramids and pharaohs had total control (they were gods); brought into power by Menes
Middle Kingdom
loses some of their power when they are invaded by the Hyksos
New Kingdom
regains power and began to expand; trade becomes more of a factor
invaded and ruled Egypt during the Middle Kingdom and ruled as pharaohs; from southwest Asia
Amenhotep IV
temporarily changed the religion of Egypt from polytheistic to a monotheistic with just a Sun God
conquered the Indus River Valley people through the mountains; brought with them Vedas cult
2nd largest city in the Indus River Valley; major trading center that used land transportation (oxen and carts)
complex irrigation and sewer system; biggest city with central planning
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
central religion of India; they believe in many gods and reincarnation
Caste System
Social System of Hinduism with very little movement between classes
Caste System Classes
1. Brahmins- priests 2. Kshatrays- warriors/aristocrats 3. Vaishyas- workers (cultivators, artisans, and merchants) 4. Shudras- landless peasants and surfs 5. Untouchables- lowest of low (they do all the dirty work)
sub-castes; many layers of the caste system
Primary God of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior.
(indescribable) sacred reality that is the basis of all existence; where everything comes from and where everything goes back to
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
an accumulated result (good or bad) of one's actions in various lives; the measurement of Samsara
constant cycle of birth and rebirth the quality of which is determined by Karma
to leave Samsara through a release and ultimate enlightenment
Vedantic Age
marked by the appearance of the Upanishads
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
the creator, preserver, and destroyer that work as a cycle
Xia Dynasty
This was the earliest known dynasty. There is no written evidence of this early time period, but artifacts have been found. The people of this time were farmers and made pottery; bronze age of China
Shang Dynasty
centralized government; farming society concerned with war; Mandate of Heaven
Zhou Dynasty
Decentralized government; Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Oracle Bones
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
Chavin Cult
mysterious but very popular South American religion during 1000-300 BCE.