Deoxyribonucleic acid
the blueprint of heredity
Helsinki Accords
a 1975 political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by Western European countries and the Soviet Union
Hubble Space Telescope
Optical telescope that was placed in Earth orbit by the space shuttle in 1990. Now produces accurate images of bodies that cannot be observed
International Space Station
A vehicle sponsored by 16 nations that circles the earth while carrying out experiments
Service Industries
Occupations that provide a service rather than a manufactured or agricultural product
World's first artificial satellite, launched by Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. Weighing 83.5kg(184lb) and with a radio transmitter_______1 circled the Earth for several months
A school of art in which persons and objects are represented by geometric forms
Balfour Declaration
British ministers Lord Balfour's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917
Kabuki Theater
A for of Japanese theater developed in the 17th century that features colorful scenery and costumes and an exaggerated style of acting
Mass Consumerism
Trade in products designed to appeal to a global market
National Organization of Women (NOW)
U.S. organization founded in 1969 to campaign for women's rights
New Deal
U.S. President Roosevelt's program to relieve the economic problems of the Great Depression; it increased government involvement in the society of the United States
No Theater
The classical Japanese drama with music and dances performed on a simple stage by elaborately dressed actors
Welfare State
A nation in which the government plays an active role in providing services such as social security to its citizens
Green Revolution
Program of improved irrigation methods and the introduction of high yield seeds and fertilizers and pesticides to improve agricultural production; was especially successful in Asia but also was used in Latin America
Guest Workers
Workers from North Africa and Asia who migrated to Europe during the late 20the century in search for employment; some settled in Europe permanently
Ozone Depletion
Thinning of the layer of the gas ozone high in the Earth's atmosphere ozone serves as protection against the sun's ultraviolet rays
Coup d' etat
Sudden overthrow of a government
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
The psuedo-political and economic union of Japanese-dominated Asian and Pacific territories during World War II. By the end of the war, the Co-Prosperity Sphere had become an object of hatred and ridicule.
Weimar Republic
The republic that was established in Germany in 1919 and ended in 1933
Viet Minh
Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during World War II; employed guerrilla tactics similar to Maoists in China
Information or material spread to advance a cause or to damage an opponent's cause
European Union
Began as European Economic Community (or Common Market), as alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Finland, and other nations for further European economic integration
Viet Cong
Name given to by Diem regime to the communist guerrilla movement in southern Vietnam; reorganized with northern Vietnamese assistance as the National Liberation Front in 1958
African National Congress
Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority rule; until 1990's declared illegal
Free Officers Movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930's; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952
Dien Bien Phu
Most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control of northern Vietnam
National Liberation Front (FLN)
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla was against France in the 1950s; success of tactics led to independence of Algeria in 19584
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system or racial segregation called apartheid
Muslim League
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which the live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
Total War
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
French collaboration government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members
Twenty-One Demands
(1915), instrument by which Japan secured temporary hegemony over China. Japan used its declaration of war against Germany (Aug., 1914) as grounds for invading Kiaochow, the German leasehold in Shandong prov., China. Disregarding the Chinese request to withdraw, Japan secretly presented (1915) President Yüan Shih-kai with an ultimatum comprising 21 demands divided into five sections.