an oasis town along the silk roads; place where merchants & caravans found food, rest, lodging, and markets; hosted travelers from different lands who spoke different languages and had different religions; became cosmopolitan center
Han Wudi
The "Martial Emperor". He occupied the imperial throne for 54 years from 141 to 87 B.C.E. and ruled his empire with vision and vigor. He was the Han dynasty's greatest and most energetic empror
society with unidentifiable writing system, had fertility cults
Indo-European peoples that largely dominated northern Europe, particularly in modern-day France and Great Britain
Nomadic people from the steppes of central Asia who spoke a Turkish language. Became the main enemy of Han China
One of the four main castes in India consisting of priests
The compilation of Confucius' writings
Mandate of Heaven
The Zhou theory of politics, heavenly powers granted the right to govern
Siddhartha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism. Searched for the answer to suffering
Sargon of Akkad
The creator of empire in Mesopotamia. A talented administrator and brilliant warrior
underground canals that enhanced agricultural production and population growth
Royal Road
This streched over 1,600 miles throughout the Persian Empire and was responsible for trade as well as the exchange of ideas and religions among societies
Ambitious minor official from southern Egypt who rose to power and extended his authority north and into the delta. Founded Memphis
Linear A
Script devised by the Minoans on Crete during late third millennium B.C.E.
These were elected officials who represented the commoners' interests in the Roman government. They had the power to intervene in all political matters, and possessed the right to veto measures that they judged unfair.
"a sitting in front of", took the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised, taught that appearances are deceiving and individual human beings are not separate and autonomous creatures
"old stone age"
"new stone age", because of refinements in tool-making techniques
Zhou dynasty
After Shang dynasty, "mandate of heaven", used decentralized administration
One of Alexander of Macedon's three generals who succeeded him, took Egypt
A Chinese school of thought that developed during the sixth century B.C.E. in which it represented an unchanging principle that governs all the workings of the universe and it was neither good nor bad. It does nothing, and yet it accomplishes everything. According to this principle, human beings would tailor to its passive and yielding nature
cause and effect, Indian religions
Shang Dynasty
rise and success was due to bronze metallurgy, monopolized bronze, capitals at Ao and Yin
servants of the Spartan state
Complex Society
large-scale organization that emerged in several parts of the ancient world
476 C.E.
end of western Roman empire, end of imperial rulers
created the origins of the caste system
"holy inscriptions", Egyptian pictographs that represented sounds and ideas
Ancestor Veneration
tending graves and memories of ancestors, offering food and drink at the graves
Roman family social system whereby eldest male ruled the household as "father of the family." Under this social system, the eldest male was given the authority to arrange marriages, determine duties of children, punish them, and/or sell them into slavery if they saw fit
The high tide of Athenian democracy came under the leadership of this statesmen
Official religion throughout the Persian Empire for more than a millennium
Xia Dynasty
made one of the first efforts to organize public life in China on a large scale, created by sage-king Yu, established precedent for hereditary monarchical rule in China
Oracle Bones
principal instruments used by fortune-tellers in ancient China
spoke tongues in specific family of languages including, Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician