Black Legend
the mistaken belief that the conquistadors brought only misery to the New World, when in fact they also laid the foundations for nations
Christoper Columbus
explorer funded by Ferdinand and Isabella, tried to find a water route to Asia but landed in the West Indies
Spanish conquerors in the New World, comprised of soldiers, peasants, artisans, and middle class
series of wars fought to reclaim Christian Holy Lands, created a European interest in Asian goods
Vasco de Gama
first European explorer to reach India by sea
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope, thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia
Spanish system that gave Indians to the colonists in return for the promise to try and Christianize them
Ferdinand and Isabella
married to unite the kingdom of Spain, reconquered Spain from the Muslims, funded Columbus
attempted to circumnavigate the the globe, which his crew did after he died in the Philippines
ancient civilization in southwestern US, declined by about 1300
Mississippian settlement near present-day St. Louis
northeastern Indian nation, developed an organized government and military
Sugar Revolution
increase in the European demand for sugar, fueled by its success in the Caribbean
native people of Hispaniola, population was decimated by Spanish invasion
Three sisters agriculture
Native American method of planting corn, beans, and squash together
Ponce de Leon
Spanish explorer of Florida, which he thought was an island, looked for gold
Spanish conqueror of Mexico, destroyed Tenochtitlan
Mission Indians
Indians that were adopted into Christian missions and taught Christianity and crafts
searched for fabled golden cities, explored Arizona, Kansas and New Mexico, discovered Grand Canyon and bison
Tidewater region
region of flat, low-lying plains along the coast
members of the Catholic religious order founded by St. Francis
Francis Drake
English privateer under Queen Elizabeth, took command of the navy against the Spanish Armada
Spanish explorer who defeated the Incas in Peru
led the first English attempt to colonize Newfoundland, died at sea
Joint stock companies
small investors combined their funds to pay for expeditions to the New World
Marco Polo
explorer who traveled to Asia and brought accounts back to Europe
people of mixed European and Native American descent
Mississippian culture
North American civilization of mound builders with a prosperous society
king of the Aztecs when Cortez landed in Mexico
Pope's Rebellion
Pueblo uprising in New Mexico that destroyed Catholic churches and took control for almost 50 years
Queen Elizabeth
queen of England, founded the Anglican Church, supported joint stock companies, pushed for discovery in the New World
Spanish Armada
huge Spanish fleet that was used to protect holding in the New World, sent to conquer England in 1588, its defeat was the beginning of the end for Spain
capital city of the Aztecs, conquered by Cortez, Mexico City was built on the same site
Treaty of Tordesilles
divided the world between Spain and Portugal
discovered the Pacific Ocean
form of North American corn, staple of many Native American cultures