A common food allergy for young children is _____.
soy
Preschoolers use extra thick crayons and pencils to help compensate for their developing _____.
fine motor skills
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Nicoli suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere of his brain. Which skill is most likely to have been affected?
language
The left side of the brain notices details, while the right side grasps _____.
the big picture
The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is _____.
the corpus callosum
Regis, a 6-year-old, can correctly name objects, catch a ball and throw it, and write his ABCs in proper sequence. His younger brother Mark is much less speedy and skillful in all of these areas. What is the explanation for Regis's superior performance?
Regis's brain has experienced greater myelination than Mark's.
Elise is beginning to learn how to write. She can hold a pencil in one hand and steady the paper with her other hand. This new ability to coordinate the duties of her right and left hands is likely due to _____.
the growth of her corpus callosum
Why are children drawn toward eating lead-based paint chips?
The paint chips taste sweet.
The idea that child maltreatment is rare and perpetuated by disturbed strangers _____.
has been disproved by research
Over the past three decades in Brazil, what has been the trend in children's health and body growth?
Children no longer suffer from undernutrition, but now face overnutrition.
Which of these is an example of secondary prevention?
pushing a child out of the way of a falling ladder
The ultimate control and information-processing part of the brain is the _____.
cerebral cortex
One of the most common diseases of young children in developed nations is _____.
tooth decay
JongHyun is able to play "Go Fish," a card game that requires quick thinking. What brain change most directly supports his ability to think quickly?
myelination
Fine motor skills depend heavily on the maturation of the _____.
corpus callosum
Austin's parents neglected him, and the court determined that he needed to be removed from their care while his parents dealt with the issues that led to his neglect. He was placed with his aunt, who provided _____.
kinship care
Researchers had children sort picture cards by shape. Then they asked the same children to sort the same cards by color. They found that children under the age of 4 _____.
had difficulty changing to a new sorting pattern
In the past 20 years, the incidence of plumbism has declined due to _____.
the removal of lead from paint and gasoline
Today, about _____ percent of people in Great Britain and the United States are left-handed.
10
Leisha grew 4.5 inches and gained 3 pounds last year. About how many years old is Leisha likely to be?
3
Montessori schools emphasize:
individual pride and accomplishment.
In the early 1960s in the United States, which of the following was established to improve learning among children who are disadvantaged?
Head Start programs
The term for the time when language learning is most easily and readily accomplished is:
a sensitive period.
The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called:
fast-mapping.
The ability to speak or write is called _________ language.
expressive
As water is poured from a tall and thin container into a short and fat one, the preoperational child is likely to say that there is now less water: the child is focusing only on how high the water is. This is a demonstration of what Piaget referred to as:
a lack of conservation.
In order to foster fluent bilingualism, what do children need?
scaffolding in both languages
regular opportunities to speak both languages
appreciation of both languages and cultures
***All of the answers are correct.
The term ________ refers to a person who is fluent in two languages, with one language not favored over the other.
"bilingual"
When asked what she had for dinner, Samantha replies, "I eated pizza!" Her exclamation would be best described as an example of what aspect of language development in early childhood?
overregularization
The goal of teacher-directed early-education programs is to:
help get all children "ready to learn."
The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories is called:
theory-theory
Which of the following statements is true about theory of mind?
Culture and social interactions influence theory of mind.
According to the text, which of the following states provides preschool for all 4-year-olds?
Oklahoma
Vygotsky's term for the skills that a person does not yet have independently but can experience with assistance is:
zone of proximal development
In 2012-2013, approximately ____ percent of 4-year-olds in the United States were enrolled in state-sponsored preschools.
28
A young child who states that "butter is made by butterflies" and "birds grow birdseed" is trying to use:
logical extension.
What is Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6?
preoperational intelligence
A major problem with most state early-intervention programs is that:
the funding allocated is not adequate to provide the needed characteristics for quality programs.
Which characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child assuming that the world is unchanging, so always remains just the way it is currently?
static reasoning
Vygotsky's term for a person who has more knowledge than a child and directs the child's learning, understanding, and skills is:
a mentor.
Erik Erikson's third developmental stage—the stage during which a strong self-concept develops —is called:
initiative versus guilt.
In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who received an expected award for drawing:
were less likely to draw later.
According to the text, ___________ is valued in many Native American cultures.
patience
Emotional regulation differs between:
younger and older children.
***All of the answers are correct.
cultures.
girls and boys.
An undercontrolled behavioral outburst is a result of ____________, and overcontrolling behavior is a result of _____________.
externalizing problems; internalizing problems
After getting into a fight with his father, Gabe shot at his neighbors' windows with his BB gun. Gabe is most likely __________ his anger.
externalizing
A kind of play identified by Mildred Parten is:
onlooker play.
Rosa and Aisha are building a tower with blocks. They are working together to see how high they can stack the blocks, taking turns stacking. Which type of play are they most likely engaging in?
cooperative play
The sociodramatic play of boys often revolves around:
themes of good versus evil.
On average, children ages 2 to 8 of different ethnic and economic groups spend ________ a day exposed to electronic media.
3 to 4½ hours
Johnna loves her children dearly but believes that they can do no wrong and that they should be allowed to develop without interference. Accordingly, she accepts whatever they do without control or discipline. Her parenting style could be best described as:
permissive parenting.
According to longitudinal studies, children who become successful, happy, and generous adults generally have parents who were:
authoritative.
Which of the following dimensions did Baumrind use to describe the variation in the standards that parents have for responsibility and self-control in their children?
expectations for maturity.
Two-year-old Ari would most likely know what in terms of sex and gender differences?
to call males men and females women
Freud postulated that young boys have an unconscious desire to replace their fathers and win their mother's exclusive love. He called this:
the Oedipus complex.
All types of aggression become less frequent by age ____ due to ______________________.
6; brain maturation and increases in empathy.
Three-year-old Tim knocks his preschool friend Dan to the ground to get a toy away from him. Tim is likely demonstrating:
instrumental aggression.
What kind of aggression is unprovoked and involves repeated physical or verbal attacks?
bullying
Longitudinal research has found that children who are physically punished:
are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults.
Physical punishment ________ the possibility of aggression and temporarily ______ obedience.
increases; increases