What is Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6?
concrete operational
formal operational
preoperational intelligence
sensorimotor
preoperational intelligence
The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories is called:
theory of mind.
static reasoning.
theory-theory.
conservation.
c. theory-theory
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Early childhood is __________ for language learning.
a critical period
a sensitive period
both a critical and a sensitive period
neither a critical nor a sensitive period
b. a sensitive period
The results of a 2006 study of 5-year-olds in inner-city Milwaukee revealed that, compared to other children, children exposed to a Montessori program:
engaged in less creative play.
did not show improved performance on any academic measures but were described as being more socially competent.
were better at prereading and early math tasks.
were more likely to attend college.
c. were better at prereading and early math tasks
Which of the following has been shown to influence when a child exhibits a theory of mind?
age and siblings
numerical understanding and having a theory-theory
height and weight
age and private speech
a. age and siblings
Instead of saying "feet," 4-year-old Jasper says "foots." This error is best described as an example of:
inappropriate use of articles.
fast-mapping.
generalization.
overregularization.
d. overregularization
The term ________ refers to a person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other.
"language shifter"
"balanced bilingual"
"dual language learner"
"bilingual"
b. balanced bilingual
According to the text, what complicates the evaluation of Head Start programs?
The program is no longer federally funded.
Various programs refuse to participate.
Gender-based differences in cognitive development make comparisons difficult.
Programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals.
d. Programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals
The average child knows about ___________ words at age 2 and more than ___________ at age 6.
800; 10,000
500; 20,000
500; 10,000
800; 20,000
c. 500; 10,000
According to your text, it is best that children:
become equally fluent in two languages.
become more fluent in a new, dominant language than in their home language.
understand their parents' language but speak only the dominant language.
act as interpreter when their parents don't speak the dominant language.
a. become equally fluent in two languages.
An experimenter who lines up seven pairs of checkers in two rows of equal length and asks a child if the rows have the same number of checkers is likely testing for conservation of:
volume.
matter.
number.
length.
c. number.
A 3-year-old who gives his mother a toy car for HER birthday and expects that she will love it is demonstrating:
egocentrism.
centration.
focus on appearance.
static reasoning.
a. egocentrism
Which Piagetian term literally means "self-centered"?
centration
preoperational thought
egocentrism
conservation
c. egocentrism
Which of the following statements about Head Start is true?
Its long-lasting beneficial effects are well documented.
Some programs involve parents; others do not.
All employ teacher-centered approaches.
All use the same curriculum and work to achieve the same goals.
b. Some programs involve parents; others do not.
Which of the following would best explain why a preoperational child would not be able to understand that cats can be both pets and wild animals?
egocentrism
centration
irreversibility
conservation
b. centration
The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called:
scaffolding.
fast-mapping.
guided participation.
conservation
b. fast-mapping
Theory of mind:
typically appears rather suddenly.
occurs in predictable phases over a period of two to three years between the ages of 4 and 8.
occurs in predictable phases over a period of two to three years between the ages of 8 and 12.
does not occur until the formal operational stage of cognitive development is reached.
a. typically appears rather suddenly.
Which of the following is a term associated with Vygotsky's approach to cognitive development?
theory-theory
head start
centration
scaffolding
d. scaffolding
Piaget's second of four stages of cognition is:
preoperational intelligence.
sensorimotor.
illogical operations.
concrete operational.
a. preoperational intelligence
Child-centered programs that recognize that children learn through play with other children are most consistent with the views of:
Piaget.
Vygotsky.
Erikson.
Freud.
b. Vygotsky
Which characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child assuming that the world is unchanging, always in the state in which the child currently encounters it?
centration
irreversibility
static reasoning
conservation
c. static reasoning
Child-centered programs that recognize that children learn through play with other childrenare most consistent with the views of:
Piaget.
Vygotsky.
Erikson.
Freud.
b. Vygotsky
Child-centered programs stress children's development and growth through:
academics.
following adult directions.
self discovery.
making children "read to learn."
c. self discovery
The tendency of a young child to apply rules of grammar when he or she should not is:
overregularization.
fast-mapping.
syntax extension.
scaffolding.
a. overregularization
A study of Mexican American children and the questions that they asked found that:
older children asked more questions than younger children.
most questions were about nature, such as "Why is the sky blue?"
highly educated mothers recorded fewer questions.
most questions were about human behavior, such as "Why do people kiss?"
d. most questions were about human behavior, such as "Why do people kiss?"