the system of having two chambers within one legislative body (e.g. the House and Senate in Congress)
pork barrel
legislative appropriations that benefit specific constituents, created with the aim of helping local representatives win reelection
descriptive representation
When a member of Congress shares the characteristics (such as gender, race, religion, or ethnicity) of his or her constituents
substantive representation
When a member of Congress represents constituents' interests and policy concerns
A member of Congress who represents constituents' interests while also taking into account national, collective, and moral concerns that sometimes cause the member to vote against the preference of a majority of constituents (want to be responsible)
A member of Congress who loyally represents constituents' direct interests (want to be responsive)
A member of Congress who acts as a delegate on issues that constituents care about and as a trustee on more complex or less salient issues
A result of the "permanent campaign" is that
senators are less insulated from electoral forces than previously.
Attempts to use the redistricting process for political advantage are called
Congress's bicameral structure reflects an attempt to reconcile which competing interests of the early nation?
large vs. small states
How many Senate seats are in contest in any given election?
If a legislator is elected with less than 55 percent of the vote, he or she is said to
hold a marginal seat
It takes at least __________ to make a credible challenge in a political campaign to unseat an incumbent in most districts, and in many areas with expensive media markets, the minimum price tag for such a campaign is __________.
$1 million; $2 million
Madison saw the relatively short two-year House term as a means of accomplishing
tying representatives to public sentiment.
Much of what made Congress the "first branch" of national government in the early days of U.S. history are powers grounded in the
elastic clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article I, §8, clause 18).
Officially, state legislatures redraw district boundaries every 10 years to ensure that
districts are approximately equal in population.
The Founders viewed the Senate as the more likely of the two houses to debate and act for
national interests
Urban voters tend to expect what of their representatives?
less direct contact and more policy explanations
What the public refers to as gridlock and bickering is often a manifestation of representatives dealing with the dueling demands that they
be responsible national leaders and responsive to local concerns.
What trend has allowed the president to assume a more central policy-making role?
the increasing importance of national security issues
When representatives help constituents interact with government programs or agencies, they are engaging in
Why is promoting descriptive representation valuable in itself?
It encourages trust in the system among various demographic groups.
A high presidential approval rating produces which of the following consequences?
Congress is more likely to support the president's programs
Congress passes a bill, adjourns, and the president does not respond to the bill. The bill then dies. What is this called?
a pocket veto
Laws enacted by Congress provide the president with __________ authority.
Over the course of American history, presidential power has generally tended to
Recess appointments
allow the president to bypass Senate confirmation.
The Senate must confirm __________ presidential appointments to federal positions.
The term "bully pulpit" was first associated with which President ?
Teddy R.
The vesting clause of the Constitution states that
executive power is to be vested in the president of the United States.
What constitutes the president's tactic of "going public"?
appealing directly to the American people to gain support for his or her programs
What is the purpose of the president's using the veto as threat?
The president can influence the legislative process in Congress.
What was the name of the legislation that required presidents to seek congressional approval for major military operations around the world?
War Powers Resolution
Which of the following is a major goal for all staffers of the Executive Office of the President in his first term?
the re-election goals of the president
Which of the following is an example of the "rally 'round the flag" effect?
George W. Bush's high approval ratings following the 9/11 attacks.
Why are presidential pardons sometimes controversial?
Pardons may allow executive branch appointees to pursue the president's objectives with impunity.
_____________________take place between the executive branch and a foreign government. They can be reversed by subsequent presidents.
Executive agreements
What is a pocket veto?
the automatic death of a bill if the president does not sign it in the last ten days of a session
The term "franking privilege" refers to:
free postage on mail that legislators send to their constituents.
What did the 17th amendment do?
allowed for direct election of senators
Why do senators have longer terms than members of the House of Reps?
to make sure that senators were somewhat insulated from the people
What is the most common style of representatives in Congress?
provided by members of Congress to their constituents in solving problems with the federal bureacuracy or addressing other specific concerns
electoral connection
The idea that congressional behavior is centrally motivated by members' desire for reelection
Redrawing the geographic boundaries of legislative districts. This happens every 10 years to ensure that districts remain roughly equal in population.
The process of assigning the 435 seats in the House to the states based on increases or decreases in state population.
Attempting to use the process of redrawing district boundaries to benefit a political party, protect incumbents, or change the proportion of minority voters in a district
An inability to enact legislation because of partisan conflict within Congress or between Congress and the president
incumbency advantage
The relative infrequency with which members of Congress are defeated in their attempts for reelection
A form of reciprocity in which members of Congress support bills that they otherwise might not vote for in exchange for other members' votes on bills that are very important to them
Federally funded local projects attached to bills passed through Congress
The informal congressional norm of choosing the member who has served the longest on a particular committee to be the committee chair
Speaker of the House
the elected leader of the House of Representatives
majority leader
The elected head of the party holding the majority of seats in the House or Senate
whip system
An organization of House leaders who work to disseminate information and promote party unity in voting on legislation
minority leader
The elected head of the party holding the minority of seats in the House or Senate
president pro tempore
A largely symbolic position usually held by the most senior member of the majority party in the Senate
roll call vote
A recorded vote on legislation; members may vote yes, no, abstain, or present
party vote
A vote in which the majority of one party opposes the position of the majority of the other party
party unity
The extent to which members of Congress in the same party vote together on party votes
standing committee
Committees that are a permanent part of the House or Senate structure, holding more importance and authority than other committees
select committees
Committees in the House or Senate created to address a specific issue for one or two terms
joint committees
Committees that contain members of both the House and Senate but have limited authority
conference committees
Temporary committees created to negotiate differences between the Hosue and Senate versions of a piece of legislation that has passed through both chambers
distributive theory
The idea that members of Congress will join committees that best serve the interests of their district and that committee members will support each other's legislation
informational theory
The idea that having committees in Congress made up of experts on specific policy areas helps to ensure well-informed policy decisions
How a bill becomes a law:
1) member of Con. introduces bill 2) subcommittee/committee craft the bill 3) floor action in 1st chamber (House or Senate) 4) floor action in 2nd chamber 5) conference committee works out differences between House and Senate versions of the bill 6) conference committee version given final approval in each chamber 7) president signs or vetoes
A conference committee's job is to
reconcicle differences between the House and Senate versions of a bill
One way the passage of the ACA differed from the conventional process is that
President Obama and party leaders were directly involved in shaping the bill
One of the steps through which a bill becomes a law, in which the final wording of the bill is determined
The president's rejection of a bill that has been passed by Congress. A veto can be overriden by a 2/3's vote in both the House and Senate
pocket veto
The automatic death of a bill passed by the House and Senate when the president fails to sign the bill in the last 10 days of a legislative session
omnibus legislation
Large bills that cover several topics and may contain extraneous, or pork-barrel, projects
A procedure through which the Senate can limit the amount of time spent debating a bill (cutting off a filibuster) if a supermajority of 60 senators agree
A tactic used by senators to block a bill by continuing to hold the floor and speak--under the Senate rule of unlimited debate--until the bill's supporters back down
An objection to considering a measure on the Senate floor
closed rules
Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committee prohibiting amendments to a bill
open rules
Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the House Rules Committee allowing relevant amendments to a bill
modified rules
Conditions placed on a legislative debate by the HRC allowing certain amendments to a bill while barring others
Most constituents are ___; most members of Congress act as if the constituency ___ paying attention.
inattentive; is
Members of Congress generally hold multiple goals. Which goal comes first?
getting reelected
What is apportionment?
determining which states win/lose seats in the House
A home style shapes the way members of Congress ___.
present themselves to their district
On average, incumbents spend ___ times as much as challengers.
The norm of ___ says that federal highway dollars are likely to be divided up so that many districts benefit.
Committee leadership, division of seats on committee, and allocation of committee resources are determined by ___.
the majority party
The Senate leadership is ___ the House leadership.
less powerful than
Party leaders have the power to __.
help their members get favorable committee assignments
Compared to the Senate, the floor process in the House is very __ and __.
structured; majoritarian
Waiting for a crisis to emerge before taking action is called ___.
fire alarm oversight
The McCain-Feingold Act is an example of a reform that ____ Congress' image and ____ the internal efficiency.
improved; improved
Presidential power has increased over time for all of the reasons below except:
changes in the Constitution
Which of the following events during Obama's presidency best illustrates the limits of presidential power?
congressional consideration of immigration reforms
constitutional authority
Powers derived from the provisions of the Constitution that outline the president's role in gov.
statutory authority
Powers derived from laws enacted by Congress that add to the powers given to the president in the Constitution
vesting clause
makes the president both the head of government and the head of state
head of government
One role of the president, through which he has authority over the executive branch
head of state
One role of the president through which he or she represents the country symbolically and politically
recess appointment
Selection by the president of a person to be an ambassador or head of a dept. while the Senate is not in session, thereby bypassing Senate approval
executive orders
Proclamations made by the president that change government policy w/o Congressional approval
fast-track authority
An expedited system for passing treaties under which support from a simple majority is needed in both the House and Senate and no amendments are allowed
executive agreement
An agreement btw. the exec. branch and a foreign gov. which acts as a treaty but doesn't require Senate approval
State of the Union
An annual speech in which the president addresses Congress to report on the condition of the country and to recommend policies
executive privilege
The right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidental from leg. and jud. branches
presidential approval rating
The percentage of Americans who think that the president is doing a good job in office
go public
A president's use of speeches and other communications to appeal directly to citizens