Charles Darwin
(1809-1882) British scientist who signed for a four-year voyage on a surveying vessel bound for Latin America and the South seas where he became convinced that the species of organic life had evolved under the uniform pressure of natural laws
acquisition of new territories by a state and the incorporation of these territories into a political system as subordinate colonies
limited-liability joint-stock company
company that mobilized capital from a large number of investors, called shareholders, who were not to be held personally liable for financial losses incurred by the company
Manifest Destiny
belief that it was God's will for the American people to expand their territory and political processes across the North American continent
Meiji Restoration
reign of the Meiji emperor, which was characterized by a new nationalist identity, economic advances, and political transformation
natural selection
Charles Darwin's theory that populations grew faster than the food supply, creating a "struggle for existence" among species
genre of literature and painting that portrayed the northwestern peoples of North Africa and Asia as exotic, sensuous, and economically backward with respect to Europeans
British crown's administration of India following the end of the East India Company's rule after the Rebellion of 1857
self-strengthening movement
in the latter half of the nineteenth century, a movement of reformist Chinese bureaucrats that attempted to adopt western elements of learning and technological skill while retaining their core Chinese culture
a metal more malleable and stronger than iron that became essential for industries like shipbuilding and railways