Alternating Pattern
This pattern is a type of writing style that is used in comparison or contrasting essays. This pattern talks about the different elements of different pieces.

It talks about the the differences or similarities of both stories at a time.

the character, force, or collection of forces that oppose the protagonist and gives rise to conflict. Richard Strout would be the antagonist in "Killings" by Andres Dubus
Block Pattern
This pattern focuses on one piece at a time, and talks about nothing but the piece and then switches focus onto another piece.
The struggle within the plot between opposing forces
Direct Presentation of character
tells the readers directly about the personality and/or the physical traits of a character. These types of definitions set up the character, and the reader can picture the character in their mind based on the info given by the author.

An example would be when William Faulkner describes Miss Emily in "A Rose for Emily." He describes her as short, fat, and beady eyed.

Dynamic setting
A setting that changes drastically which has an impact on what happens in the story. For example, in Chitra Divakaruni's short story "clothes" the setting changes from India to America, where the main character is in a constant battle between the different cultures and has to adjust to the many changes that occur between the two diverse settings.
Elements of setting
explains what, where, and when the story takes place.

Examples include geographical locations, historical periods, culture, morals, environment, etc. The short story "Please Read" by Rhonda Strickland include a very dreary environment.

First person PoV
PoV of only one character; restricted to perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of that single character. "Clothes" by Chitra Divakaruni
Flat character
embodies one or two qualities, ideas, or traits that readily can be described in a brief summary. Dee from "Everyday Use" by Alice Walker
Incorporation of textual evidence
Quotes from a text that help support your writing. They are to be incorporated smoothly and must work with what you're writing about.

Example: In T.C. Boyle's, "Carnal Knowledge," Jim gets consumed in the protesting. He just goes along with Alena and even thinks, "I don't know what I was saying" (Boyle 571).

Indirect presentation of character
reader determines a character's motives and aspects not by narration, but by their actions.

For example, in May-Lee Chai's "Saving Sourdi", Nea constantly states her distrust and hatred for the evil Mr. Chhay.

Ironic relationship with character
relationship in which the reader knows of something that a character within the story does not. For example, in Andre Dubus's "Killings", Richard Strout follows Matt and Willis assuming that they would help him avoid trial.

Literary Present
When the story is written in the present tense. "Saving Sourdi," by May-Lee Chai, presented the present tense in a way that improved her story.
Neutral Setting
When the setting does not have any affect on the story at all. "Killing," by Andre Dubus, is an example of having a neutral setting because the setting had close to nothing to do with the plot of the story.

main character of a narrative; its central character who engages the reader's interest and empathy
Quotations, proper citation
Quotations, proper integration
Round character
more complex that flat or stock characters, often display the inconsistencies and internal conflicts found in most real people. Mama from "Everyday Use" by Alice Walker
Social setting
The environment in which social events occur
The secondary action of a story, complete and interesting in its own right, that reinforces or contrasts with the main plot.
A person, object, image, word, or event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract than its literal significance. The newspaper from "Please Read" by Rhonda Strickland
Sympathetic character
a character that the reader can relate to or understand the reason why the character did what they did. This can be applied to a character that committed an illegal action, but had emotional or moral ties to the action, much like Matt in Andre Dubus' Killings.

The central meaning or dominant idea in a literary work
Thesis statement
The central idea of an essay. Usually the last sentence two of the introductory paragraph.
Third person limited omniscient PoV
When an author restricts a narrator to a single perspective of either a major or minor character. "Killings" by Andres Dubus
Third person omniscient POV
An all-knowing narrator who is not a character in the story and who can move from place to place and pass back and forth through time, slipping into and out of characters as no human being possibly could in real life.
Unreliable narrator
Reveals an interpretation of events that is somehow different from the author's own interpretation of those events.

Nea in "Saving Sourdi" by Mai-Lee Chai would be an unreliable narrator

Unsympathetic narrator
Characters who are unrelatable. They are often not liked or cared for by readers. These characters may or may not be the antagonist of their story. An example of an unsympathetic character is Okpala from "Growing My Hair Again" by Chika Unigwe.