Christopher Columbus
A Spanish explorer who sailed West across the Atlantic in search of an alternate trade route to Asia. He first landed on San Salvador in the Caribbean Sea.
A land controlled by a distant nation
Hernando Cortes
A Spanish conquistador who wished to colonize the American Mainland
Hernando Cortes
This explorer conquered the Aztec Empire
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
Montezuma II
The Aztec emperor who believed Cortes to be an armor-clad God.
Francisco Pizarro
The Spanish Conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire
of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on int.
New France
France's colonial empire in North America
The first English colony, it was located on a small peninsula. At first, it struggled heavily, but upon the discovery of tobacco, it prospered.
A group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England.
A group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay in the Early 1600s.
New Netherland
The Dutch holdings in North America
French and Indian War
A conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754-1763.
the Native American ruler who led an attack on 52 colonial villages throughout Massachusetts thus starting King Philip's War
Atlantic Slave Trade
The buying, transporting, or selling of Africans for work in the Americas
Triangular Trade
the Transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America
Middle Passage
The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and South America, to be sold as slaves - so called because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade.
Columbian Exchange
The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
Commercial Revolution
The expansion of trade and business that transformed European colonies during the 16th and 17th centuries
an economic system based on private ownership, and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
Joint-Stock Company
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profit.
An economic policy in which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and by selling more goods than they bought.
Favorable Balance of Trade
An economic situation in which a country exports more than it imports.
Weapons, help from natives, disease
What three factors enabled the Spanish to defeat the Aztecs?
New Mexico
This Spanish colony offered little wealth and spread Catholicism
Culture, repressive
The natives of New Mexico revolted because of Spanish attempts to destroy _______________ and ____________ measures.
Jamestown was _______________ motivated.
Massachusetts Bay was _____________ motivated.
Jamestown had early ______________.
In contrast, Massachusetts Bay was very _______________.
Jamestown's population consisted of mostly ______________.
Massachusetts Bay's population consisted of many ________________.
Populated, commercial
English colonies were more ____________ than Dutch and French colonies, which only had _____________ reasons.
legal, mobility
Muslim slavery allowed the opportunity for _____________ rights and social ________________.
Marrying, Buying
The two ways that African slaves could escape bondage
African slavery was not _______________.
Immunity, Experience, Decreased escape
3 advantages of enslaving Africans.
Diets, population, Native Americans
The Columbian exchange improved __________- and lifestyles, increased worldwide _______________, and lead to the death of millions of ________________________.
This explorer searched for a possible sea route to the Pacific and found New York harbor
This explorer founded the gulf of the coast of the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence
The river named by Cartier
The name for Cartier's island
This explorer sailed up the St. Lawrence river and claimed Quebec
The base of France's colonial empire which came to be known as New France
La Salle
This explorer explored lower Mississippi and claimed the entire river valley for France
Name of the river valley claimed by La Salle, in honor of French King, Louis XIV
Catholic Priests
In New France, this group of people wanted to convert Native Americans
Single Men
In New France, this group of people wanted to engage in the fur trade
Beaver Hats
A popular fashion trend of French colonies
The first permanent colony, formed in 1607 in Virginia
This commodity lead to the prosperity of Jamestown
The second English colony, founded by the Pilgrims for Religious Freedom
This group of people founded a large English Colony near Massachusetts Bay
Dutch East India Company
This Dutch company was formed in 1602 to compete for trade in the Indian Ocean
Henry Hudson
This explorer founded the Hudson River, Hudson Bay, and the Hudson Strait near New York.
Dutch West India Company
This Dutch company was formed after claiming the region along the waterways of the Hudson.
New Netherland
This land encouraged variety and diversity and was once referred to as a "great confusion of tongues"
Dutch Wedge
New Netherland was a ______________________ between English North and South Colonies
Duke of York
This duke drove out the Dutch and renamed the land New York.
7 years War
The Ohio valley disputes lead to the French and Indian War which eventually resulted in the European _________________________.
King Philip's War
The bloodiest battle between English and Native American peoples
This Native American ruler attacked 52 villages during his war, King Philip's War.
Transatlantic Slave Trade
the most profitable business in the world
Voyage of Death
Another name for the Middle Passage
Slaves became more valuable than ____________.
Slavery existed in ____________for many years before Europeans.
The introduction of ____________ to Africa lead to increased slavery
Prisoners of War
African rulers justified enslavement with the Muslim belief that non-Muslim ____________________________ could be brought back and sold as slaves.
Slavery in Africa was _________.
Manufactured Goods
These were transported from Europe to Africa during the triangular trade.
These were transported from Africa to the Americas during the triangular trade.
Raw Goods
These were transported from America to Europe during the triangular trade.
Middle Passage
Name for the voyage that brought captured Africans to the Americas
cultures, generations
Because of the Slave Trade, African _________ lost _______________ of their fittest members to European traders and plantation owners
Because of the Slave Trade, African ___________ were not united
Because of the Slave Trade, _________ were introduced and lead to increased war and conflict.
Because of the Slave Trade, America had increased _______________ expertise.
Because of the Slave Trade, America had ___________- culture.
Because of the Slave Trade, America had a huge ___________ force.
Because of the Slave Trade, America had a huge African-American __________________________.
As a result of Capitalism, _______________ were no longer the sole owners of great wealth
As a result of Capitalism, ___________ flourished.
the steady rise in the price of goods.
American Colonization
The common purpose of most Joint-Stock companies
Maximum wealth, self-sufficiency
The two things desired by every country under Mercantilism.
materials, market
Colonies provided raw ___________, and a _______________.