A period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far reaching changes in art, learning and views of the world
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
A person who supports artists, especially financially.
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
The everyday language of people in a region or country.
An imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book Utopia - hence, an ideal place
Printing Press
A machine for reproducing written material by pressing paper against arrangements of inked type.
Gutenberg Bible
The first full-sized book printed with movable type and a printing press.
A pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.
A 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope's authority.
A member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.
A member of a Christian church founded on the principles of Reformation.
Peace of Augsburg
A 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.
To cancel or put an end to.
Relating to the church of England
The doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved.
A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
A government controlled by religious leaders.
A member of a Protestant church governed by elders (presbyters) and founded on the teachings of John Knox.
In the Reformation, a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state.
Catholic Reformation
A sixteenth century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation.
Members of the SOciety of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola
Council of Trent
A meeeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.
Thriving Cities, Wealthy Merchant Class, Classical Heritage of Greece and Rome
Italy's Three Advantages
What does the Renaissance mean
During what period did the Renaissance take place
Wit, Inherited
Because merchants used ______________ wit to earn their power as opposed to nobles who _____________ it, they though they deserved more power.
This family ruled Florence, Italy from behind the lines so they didn't have to be reelected
The study of classical texts resulted in ________________.
History, Literature, and Philosophy
These three areas of study fall under humanities
The Renaissance produced a shift from the spiritual to the _________________.
Renaissance Man
Also known as the Universal Man, people thought the ideal man to excel in many areas of study thus becoming a _________________.
This book taught how to be a Renaissance Man
Individualism, Realism
Renaissance Artists put a heavy emphasis on _______________________ and __________________.
The sculptor of the David of bronze
This artist filled the walls of Pope Julius II's library with paintings
Renaissance writers wrote in ______________.
This author wrote The Prince
The Prince
This book examined the imperfect conduct of humans and showed how a ruler can gain power and keep it despite having enemies.
Selfish, Fickle, and Corrupt
Machiavelli used these three words to describe people
"Strong as a lion and Shrewd as a fox"
Machiavelli's saying
Religious Subjects, Classical Myths, Realistic Landscapes, Self-Portraits, and Photographic detail
What five things did German painting focus on?
Individualism and Worldly Pleasures
What two things did Flemish painters focus on?
What city was the artistic center of Northern Europe?
_________________ paints became a major part of Flemish painting because they could blend into subtle colors
Erasmus and More
Who are the two main Christian humanists?
The Praise of Folly
Erasmus wrote this book, it made ful of greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests
Heart, Bible
Erasmus believed in strong Christianity of the _____________ not of ceremonies, and that all should study the _______________ to improve society.
Thomas More wrote this book; it was about the ideal land of peace loving people.
Gargantua and Pentagruel
Rabelais wrote this book in vernacular French, it was about Giants.
Rabelais believed that humans are basically good, so live by ____________ rather than religious rules.
Humanity, Education, and Government
Rabelais' beliefs influenced the nature of which three things?
Souls and Human Flaws
What two things did Shakespeare examine through his plays?
Elizabeth I
Which queen also wrote poetry?
The first to invent block printing
Bi Sheng
Another name for movable type
Rise in literacy, increase in learning, increase in vernacular, religious reform
Effects of the Printing Press
Printing Press
What invention spread the ideas of secularism and individualism, thereby challenging the Church?
This priest told people to burn their worldly posessions in a bonfire
Johann Tetzel
A friar who raised money by selling indulgences; Luther's enemy
95 Theses
These formal statements catalyzed the Reformation
Faith, forgiveness, Bible, equal
Luther believed that: People could win salvation only by _________________ and God's gift of ____________, all church teachings are based on the _________________, and all people of faith are _______________.
Leo X
This Pope excommunicates Luther after he asks him to take back the 95 Theses
Charles V
This Ruler issues Edict of Worms
Edict of Worms
This document declared Luther as a heretic and outlaw and said that none should shelter or give food to him.
German peasants wanted an end to _______________---
Peace of Augsburg
This document said that the religion of each German state would be declared by the ruler.
Henry's first wife, she had a daughter named Mary and was Charles V's aunt.
Reformation Parliament
The name for the parliament which issued the Act of Supremacy
Act of Supremacy
This document made the English King, not the pope, head of the English Church
Anne Bowlin
Henry's second wife, she gave birth to Elizabeth
Henry VIII's son
Edward and Elizabeth
Under these rulers, the Protestants gained power
Under this ruler, the Pope was given control of the English church
This ruler defeated a Spanish armada from invading England
Institutes of the Christian Religion
This book of Calvinism spoke of God, salvation, human nature, and Protestant theology
A doctrine of Calvinism which states that God has always known who will be saved, the elect.
John Knox
This man led Presbyterianism
Baptize again
The word anabaptism means _________________.
Schools, Catholicism, Protestantism
The Jesuits founded superb _____________, converted non-Christians to _______________, and stopped the spread of _____________________.
Council of Cardinals
Made by Paul III, this group investigated indulgence selling and other church abuses
Paul IV
This Pope made the index of forbidden books
Council of Cardinals, Jesuit, Inquisition, Council of Trent
Pope Paul III directed the ________________________, approved the _____________ order, used the _____________ to punish heresy, and called the ____________________.
Protestant churches, Religion, Monarchs, rejection
The Reformation lead to ________________ flourishing, ______________ no longer uniting Europe, __________________ and states gaining power, and the eventual ________________ of Christian belief.
Marguerite of Navarre
This Woman protected John Calvin from executing
Katherina Zell
This woman scolded a minister for speaking harshly of another
Katherina von Bora
This woman argued with Luther about Women's equal role in marriage
Final, good works, church tradition, Indulgences
The Council of Trent concluded that the Church's interpretation of the Bible was __________, faith and ____________ are needed for salvation, Bible and ________________ are equal for guiding Christian life, and __________________ are valid expressions of faith unless they are false.