Andrew Carnegie
a scottish immigrant who made a fortune off of his steel company 1873. it built the largest and most modern steel mill of its time near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He donated most of his profits
John Rockefeller
owner of Standard oil which dominated 90% of the nation's oil
Henry Bessemer
he patented a new method of making steel in 1855
bessemer process
a quicker and cheaper method of making steel which involved blowing air through molten iron
Thomas Alva Edison
inventor of the light bulb
Alexander Graham Bell
inventor of the telephone
William Jennings Bryan
leader of the populists but was too scared to go to D.C.gave "cross of gold" speech.
Mary Harris Jones
a labor activist, helped workers form unions,
Frederick Taylor
inventor of the assembly line
an economic system in which factories, equipment, and other means of production are privately owned rather than being controlled by government
factors of production
land, labor, and capital
any asset that can be used to produce an income {money, buildings, tools, machinery}
a company that is recognized by law as existing independently from its owners. it can own property, borrow money, sue or be sued.
people invest in corporations by buying __________
by buying stock, investors become _________ of the corporation
a company that completely dominates a particular industry.
a set of companies that are managed by a small group
the small group of people that manage a set of companies
horizontal integration
horizontal integration
joining together as many firms from the same industry as possible. Ex: Standard Oil
vertical integration
vertical integration
taking control of each step in the production and distribution of a product, from acquiring raw materials to manufacturing, packaging, and shipping. Ex: Carnegie steel company
the market would regulate itself if government did not interfere. "leave business alone"
social Darwinism
the best-run businesses led by the most capable people would survive and prosper. "survival of the fittest"
Dawes Act
an 1887 federal law distributing land to individual Indians rather than to tribes. thereby encouraging Indians to become assimilated
African Americans who migrated from the South to the Great Plains following the Civil War
populist party
a political party founded in 1892 calling for policies to help working people, such as government ownership of railroads and coinage of silver. made up of mostly farmers
the transformation from producing goods by hand to producing goods by machine
homestead act
an 1862 federal law that granted tracts of land called homesteads to western settlers who agreed to work the land and live on it for 5 years
homestead strike
an 1892 Carnegie steel plant workers' strike that was broken by the state militia and resulted in the union being shut out of the plant for 4 decades
transcontinental railroad
a railroad that spans the continent [Pacific ocean to the Atlantic ocean]
a small factory where employees work long hours under poor conditions for low wages
Triangle Shirtwaist fire
a drastic fire on March 25, 1911, a factory caught fire killing 146 workers
interstate commerce act
trade between states. regulate laws against railroads.
political machines
an organization consisting of full-time politicians whose main goal was to retain political power and the money and influence that went with it
Pendleton Act
an 1883 federal law that limited patronage by creating a civil service commission to administer exams for certain nonmilitary government jobs
the growth of cities
Haymarket Affair
a violent clash in 1886 between union supporters and Chicago police that divided and weakened the labor movement
Pullman strike
an 1894 railway workers' strike that was broken by federal troops, weakened the labor movement
The Gilded Age
while industrialists amassed great fortunes, society was tainted by political corruption and huge gap between rich and poor. Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Vanderbilt used some of their wealth to promote the common good. Historians debate their overall impact, noting increased industrial productivity but also unfair business practices.
push factors
a problem that causes people to immigrate to another place
pull factors
an attraction that draws immigrants to another place some examples are natural resources, jobs, freedom, money (gold), letters from people who already live there.
Ellis Island
the port of entry for most European immigrants arriving in New York between 1892 and 1954
Angel Island
the port of entry for most Asian immigrants arriving in San Francisco between 1910 and 1940 *scarier*
Chinese Exclusion Act
an 1882 law prohibiting immigration of Chinese laborers for 10 years and preventing Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens; the first US immigration restriction based solely on nationality or race
the assimilation of immigrants into American society, a goal of some patriotic groups who feared that increased immigration threatened American society and values
settlement house
a community center that provided a variety of services to the poor, especially to immigrants
Tammany Hall
a political machine in New York City led by Boss Tweed
a run-down apartment building
Social Gospel
a religious movement of the late 1800s based on the idea that social reform and Christianity go hand in hand
Boss Tweed
controlled NYC. leader of a political machine.
a similarity between the pullman strike, haymarket affair and homestead act was ___________
social reformers
they founded settlement houses to help the poor and the new immigrants
federal government
the interstate commerce act was regulated by the ___________
what did industrial consolidation and trusts reduce during the 1800's?
government regulation
what did social Darwinism discourage?
Chisholm trail
cowboys drove their cattle north along this trail
cowboys drove their cattle north in order to _______ them to market to eastern cities
Eugene Debs
he headed the American Railway union. led the fight during pullman strike
labor laws
these resulted from the investigation of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire