Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
The Great War
Known as World War I and the War to End All Wars: a global military conflict that embroiled most of the world's great powers from 1914 to 1919.
World War I alliance of Britain, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire; Alliances made to oppose the Allies in WWI
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
a new invention in WWI - a yellow colored gas that was fired at the enemy - it caused blindness, damage to the lungs and death
"No Man's Land"
A strip of land between the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WWI
On the Western front the war was fought in trenches and many people died for little land gains while on the Eastern front it was freezing conditions with little supplies causing many men to freeze to death but on both sides extreme amounts of soldiers died.
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
the mobilization of a nation civilian population during war; The name given to the part of war that was not actively involved in the fighting but which was vital to it.
a situation in which further action by either of two opponents is impossible; to bring to a standstill
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
the massacre carried out by the turks in defense of their turkism; the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, which was a combined force of Australian and New Zealand volunteer soldiers; A group of volunteer army men who participated in the failed mission to seize the Gallipoli Peninsula. (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps)
Lawrence of Arabia
British officer who helped lead Arab revolt in 1917 that allowed British army to sweep in and break up Ottoman Empire
1917, czar Nicholas was forced to abdicate throne, provisional government was put in place, there was a rise of the Marxist Bolsheviks
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
one of the local representative councils formed in Russia after the downfall of Czar Nicholas II; an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Nov. 6, 1917 when Lenin and Bolshevik followers over threw provisional government and took over the Russian government
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Vladimir Lenin's concept of a small party that claims legitimacy to rule based on its understanding of Marxist theory and its ability to represent the interests of the proletariat before they are a majority of the populace
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Influenza Pandemic of 1918/19
Disease that killed more than 20 million people. the first documented outbreak occurred in Spain in late 1918.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models
the freedom of a people to decide under what form of government they wish to live under
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
agreement by a group of nations to defend the other in case of an attack on any member
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
This 20th Century scientist revolutionized the way scientists thought about space, time and matter, the most notable being his theory of relativity.
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
A Spaniard in Paris who formed a movement in 1907 called Cubism. Cubism concentrated on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping plane.
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
Plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression
a government tax on imports or exports
is a term used to describe policies which emphasize on domestic control of the economy, labor and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
"Socialism in One Country"
Policy adopted by Stalin in the autumn of 1924, in which the notion of a worldwide socialist revolution was abandoned in
favor of making the Soviet Union a successful socialist state.
the union of soviet socialist republics, or soviet union, formed in 1922 by the communists and officially dissolved in 1991
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises.
"Dictatorship of the Proletariat"
Marx's theory of a proletariat controlled world following the taking from the wealthy; eventually it will wither away into a classless society.
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class. Then Stalin sent them to Concentration Camps for being too wealthy.
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Referring to a form of government in which one person or party holds absolute control
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish properties
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. (p. 663)
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Government of India Act
Passed in 1935 by the british parliament, this provided local self government in india and limited democratic elections.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights
An organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations.
Means "land of the pure". Unfortunately Gandhi's inspiration of Indian nationalism mainly applied to Hindus, widening the gap between them and Muslims. By the late 1930s the leaders of the Muslim League were calling for independent Muslim state, Pakistan.
May Fourth Movement
Chinese protest movement triggered by opposition to the Treaty of Versailles; a major step in the path leading to the creation and victory of CCP.
Revolution of 1911
An uprising in the industrial center in China led by Sun Yat-sen's followers while he was away. Led to a collapse of the old order (Qing) and creation of Chinese Republic.
head of the Revolutionary Alliance that led the 1911 revolt against the Qing; president of China in 1911, but yielded to Yuan Shikai in 1912; created the Guomindang in 1919; died in 1925
Republic of China
The government formed by Sun Yat Sen's revolutionaries in 1912. Also in 1949, fled to Taiwan to create the Republic of Taiwan
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life; (Long March, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution).
Chinese Communist Party
Party formed in 1923 when Sun Yat-Sen merged the Third Communist International and the KMT to create the first of many liberation fronts. This front was completely anticonservative and anti-imperialist, but not fully communist. Eventually it would separate from and defeat the KMT under Mao Zedong in 1927.
Nationalist People's Party
Led by Sun Yatsen and opposed to a dictatorship or communism, this called for a more democratic approach to government, as was meant to unite all of China. It initially allied with the CCP and accepted aid from the Soviet Union.
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
Chinese Civil War
War between communist Mao Zedong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
Believing that africa should be united to be able to push out the Europeans
Philosophy based on the belief that Africans share common bonds and are a unified people. Adopted this to break from colonial rule.
"Africa for the Africans"
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
A new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
D.Rivera & Orozco Vargas
(1886-1957) the ideological transformation apparent in Latin America became stunningly and public visible in the mural painted by this famed Mexican artist.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
United Fruit Company
company in which many U.S. citizens hold stocks in, controlled half the land in Guatemala and provided many jobs...when the government of Guatemala wanted to take the land, the U.S. intervened and over threw the government
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II
With a base in Korea the Japanese moved into Manchuria and pushed out the Russians, Manchuria proved to be an invaluable foothold in China
Shanghai and Nanjing
towns in china were japanese would bomb the towns kill civilians and raped girls when they were there
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory.
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack; "Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war.
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
German city ferociously firebombed by the Allies from February 13 to 15, 1945
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies
"Great Patriotic War"
This was what Russia called World War Two. Thus their triumph became a symbol of national pride. This was ironic, however, because 20 million Russians were killed in the war, the Russians could not have won the war without help from the other Allied powers, and the Nazis were the ones who initiated it by invading Russia.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Japan offered to liberate Southeast-Asian countries from western colonial rule but instead used them as conquered land for natural resources
Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II
Military takeover of Manchuria by the Japanese. Was not supported by the civilian government, which fell apart in response. Condemned by the newly formed League of Nations
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
a member of a nomadic people originating in northern India and now living on all continents
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
Sections of towns and cities in which Jews were forced to live.
women forcibly recruited by the japanese army to serve in military brothels
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Nations with enough military, political, and economic strength to influence events in many areas around the globe
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
Stalin's attempt to block access to Berlin. Truman sent a huge airlift to Berlin with food, fuel, and equipment to stock the City with supplies.
The Federal Republic of Germany, a US ally (West) and the German Democratic Republic, a Soviet Ally (East)
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Mutually Assured Destruction
A doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.[
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
A belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community.
Simone de Beauvoir
French author of The Second Sex. She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. She died in 1986.
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
Civil Rights Movement
a social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
the two sides in the Cold War decide to cooperate in such areas as space, trade, education, and science
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II and were dominated by the Soviet Union.
Khrushev followed this policy when he reduced the use of terror and released millions of political prisoners
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country
a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
Tensions between the USSR and China that rocked the communist world
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
A group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
A peaceful protest by the Czech people that led to the smooth end of communism in Czechoslovakia.
Fall of Berlin Wall
1989 - Beginning of the fall of communism and the Soviet Union - symbolized the failure of communism and massive socialism
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Fall of USSR
The Soviet Union's dissolution into independent nations. Several Soviet Socialist Republics began resisting central control, and increasing democratization led to a weakening of the central government. The Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991 when Boris Yeltsin seized power in the aftermath of a failed coup that had attempted to topple reform-minded Gorbachev.
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
The policy of some developing nations to refrain from aligning with either the United States or the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Indonesian statesman who obtained the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands in 1949 and served as president until ousted by Suharto in a coup d'etat (1901-1970)
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh.
A communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea;
In antiquity, the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948.
In 1952, he and other Egyptian Officers staged a coup. He became president of Egypt, and he strongly advocated Pan-Arabism as well as non-alignment with US or Soviet Union
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
African nationalist during period of decolonization; responsible for creation of first independent, black African state of Ghana in 1957; established power through his own party, the Convention Peoples party.
a violent movement against European settlers that eventually led to Kenya's decolonization from Britain
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
Tiananmen Square Protests
Student protests for freedom of press, educational reform, and an end to political corruption. After protesting for several days, hundreds of protesters were killed by the Chinese military.
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. She was also prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977.
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
Organization created in 1964 under the leadership of Yasser Arafat to champion Palestinian rights.
A movement that calls for unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation.
a fundamentalist Islamic revivalist movement generally characterized by moral conservatism and the literal interpretation of the Koran and the attempt to implement Islamic values in all aspects of life
Mullahs (religious leaders) overthrow the US backed Shah and establish a theocracy (religious government) that hated the US
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.
President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003.
The war began when Iraq invaded Iran on September 22 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long suppressed Shia majority influenced by Iran's Islamic revolution.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century
a movement within the Catholic church to understand Christianity from the perspective of the poor and oppressed, with a focus on fighting injustice
United Fruit Company
Most important foreign economic concern in Guatemala during the 20th century; attempted land reform aimed at United Fruit caused U.S. intervention in Guatemalan politics leading to ouster of reform government in 1954
Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Contras and Sandinistas
The U.S. sold weapons to Iran and used the money to fight Sandinista Communists in Nicaragua. President Reagan supported the Contras.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality
F.W. de Klerk
Elected as the last white South African president in 1989. He legalized the ANC and also released Nelson Mandela from prison. This started a new era in South Africa and ended apartheid
international trade free of government interference
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
a United Nations agency created by a multinational treaty to promote trade by the reduction of tariffs and import quotas
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade; World Trade Organization
Enterprise that manages production in more than one country
Massive postwar economic expansion, slowed in 1990s: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan imitate Japanese strategies; Asian nations whose export-driven models of the Japanese economy experienced rapid growth through the 1980s and were very competitive by the 1990s.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum; Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
an association of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation in southeastern Asia and who joined with the United States to fight against global terrorism; Association of Southeast Asian Nations
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests.
Process of assimilating immigrants into American culture by teaching English, American history, and citizenship
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
A deadly infectious disease that has killed millions across the globe. It has had the largest affect in sub-Saharan Africa where it has stalled poverty relief and is partially responsible to the continued increase in the poverty rate there.
Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.
Refers to any private sector organization that does not primarily aim to make a profit. Instead, they operate for the benefit of others in society; NO GOVERNMENT INVOLEMENT
An influential non-governmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.
An international organization dedicated to the medical care of the sick or wounded in wars and natural disasters
a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
UN Declaration of Human Rights
a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled
(1995) created by Dr. Jonas Salk. worked by introducing killed or weak pieces of the virus to allow body to develop antibodies thus preventing polio
Branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum Theory
Big Bang Theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
The use of controlled nuclear reactions to produce steam, which in turn drives turbines to produce electricity/ weapons whose destructive power comes from a nuclear reaction
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Tensions between the two major ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu, exploded into violence. In 1994 an estimated 200,000 or more people, mainly Tutsi, had died in massacres. An estimated 2 million Tutsi and Hutu fled to refugee camps in neighboring Zaire and other countries.
Irish Republican Army
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Fictional British spy invented during the Cold War by novelist Ian Fleming. A perfect example of Cold War fiction, this spy represents the ideal Westerner intellectually, physically, and technologically.
Doctors without Borders
non-governmental organization that helps people in war-torn regions and aids developing countries facing endemic disease.
a chant to the Hindu god Krishna
A style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion.
a spiritual movement that began in China in the latter half of the 20th century and is based on Buddhist and Taoist teachings and practices
India's answer to Hollywood; Based in Bombay; codified system that produces movies, music, and a lot of dance numbers; Makes Hollywood look inefficient; Big censorship in Bollywood films