To control microbial growth in a food, one can decrease water availability by the addition of
Sugar or salt
Lysozyme is an important antimicrobial substance found at high levels in which food?
The use of plastic film to wrap meat products can result in increased surface growth of microorganisms in part because of exposure to
The first person to use heating processes to preserve foods was
Nicholas Appert
The conventional low-temperature holding procedure used in the pasteurization of milk involves holding the milk at 62.8o C for __________ minutes.
The swelling of a food-containing can is frequently due to the production of ___________ by spoilage microbes.
Carbon dioxide gas
Sometimes __________ beams are used to irradiate foods in place of gamma radiation because the process does not generate radioactive waste.
The largest meat recall in U.S. history was prompted by the discovery of contamination by
Listeria monocytogenes
The term radappertization is used to describe food preservation by
Gamma irradiation
Which of the following represents a different principle for food preservation?
A major chemical used to preserve meat products is
A major organism considered to cause food-borne infection is
Campylobacter, although common in many red meats and poultry products, can easily be eliminated by proper
Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus cereus are important disease-causing microorganisms of food which cause
Ergotism involves microorganism production of
Hallucinogenic alkaloids
A major organism involved in the production of ergot is
Claviceps purpura
Aflatoxins are polycyclic aromatic compounds that interact with DNA by ___________ and cause frameshift mutations.
A major fungal genus that produces aflatoxin is
Spoilage of unpasteurized milk proceeds through a predictable series of __________ stages eventually resulting in a clear liquid.
To control pathogenic and disease-causing organisms in spices, fumigation with __________ is often used.
Ethylene oxide
Which of the following microbial genera is used in the production of fermented dairy products?
-Streptococcus -Lactobacillus -Leuconostoc
The holes in Swiss cheese are produced by the metabolic activities of which bacterial genus?
The science of wine production is called
The process of racking, used in the production of wines, involves
Removal of sediments
The production of natural carbon dioxide by yeasts after a wine is bottled results in
The process of beer lagering involves
Pitching of a batch of wort for beer production involves
A microorganism that has been used in the production of sour mash whiskey is
Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Bread products can be spoiled by the growth of Bacillus species that produce
A major cyanobacterial food source used in many parts of the world is
Mashing is a process involving
Carbohydrate hydrolysis
Pasteurization of milk
Usually eliminates all disease-causing organisms
Which of the following helps preserve foods by controlling microbial access to water?
-Drying -Addition of salt -Addition of sugar
Ionizing radiation has been used to sterilize certain types of foods. There are however, certain limitations on its effectiveness. One of these is that it will only work on
Moist foods
Which of the following determines whether or not a wine is considered to be dry?
The amount of free sugar after fermentation
Which of the following can function better at lower pH?
Yeasts and molds
A chemical that is effective in preserving foods with a low pH such as bread is
Sodium propionate
Which of the following represents ways in which canned foods may undergo spoilage?
-Spoilage before canning -As a result of underprocessing during canning -Leakage of contaminated water through can seams during cooling
Which of the following is true about molecular methods of microorganism detection in foods?
-They can be used to detect the presence of a single specific pathogen -They can be used to detect viruses that are not easily cultured -They can be used to detect slow growing pathogens
_____________ is the leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans resulting from consumption of improperly cooked poultry products.
Campylobacter jejuni
-Is a small hydrophobic protein that disrupts membrane integrity and function -Is a food additive that blocks the growth of some gram positive bacteria -Is a bacteriocin produced by some strains of Streptococcus lactis
Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus contribute to the flavor of yogurt by producing diacetyl and acetaldehyde during the fermentation of lactose.
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis can be used to link a particular pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in a specific food source.
Growth of yeasts and molds will be favored in more acidic foods.
Once a food product has been processed by heating, it will be less susceptible to contamination than a food that has not been processed.
Maintaining foods at a temperature of 41 degrees F (5 degrees C) will only retard but not stop most microbial growth.
Freezing will result in major decreases in microbial populations present in foods.
Filtration is sometimes used to remove organisms from beer because it has less effect on the flavor than pasteurization.
Staphylococcus aureus, once it grows in a food, produces toxins that are not usually inactivated by heating.
Alcoholic beverages can be produced by the direct fermentations of grains.
Alcoholic beverages can be produced by the direct fermentation of juices of grapes and other fruits.
Some fermented dairy products have been suggested to have beneficial effects, including a reduction in the incidence of colon cancer and the minimization of lactose intolerance.
In all cases, it is necessary for disease-causing microorganisms to grow in a food to result in disease transmission to humans.
Atmosphere is important in food spoilage; high O2 tends to reduce spoilage, while high CO2 tends to increase spoilage.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect as few as 10 toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a population of 100,000 microorganisms isolated from soft cheese samples.
Temperature and relative humidity are important intrinsic factors in determining the rate of food spoilage.
Mold-lactic fermentation results in a unique fermented milk consumed in Finland and called ________________.
Sequential growth of microorganisms in which the growth of one organism produces environmental conditions suitable for the subsequent growth of another organism is called ____________.
If food-borne disease transmission requires ingestion of the pathogen, followed by growth of the organism, and release of toxins in the intestine it is referred to as a food-borne __________.
If food-borne disease transmission does not require growth of the microorganism after ingestion because the toxic substances are already present in the food as a result of previous growth then it is referred to as a food-borne __________.
In breadmaking, yeast growth is usually carried out under ____________ conditions which results in more carbon dioxide production and less alcohol accumulation.
A food spoilage process called __________ results in the release of foul-smelling amine compounds.
Microorganisms that grow in media with low water availability are called _____________.