What encouraged new ways of thinking during the scientific revolution?
Technical problems that required careful observation and accurate measurements stimulated scientific activity (mathematics, science) and the invention of new instruments (telescope and microscope).
What is the geocentric theory?
in the Middle Ages, the earth centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.
What is the heliocentric theory?
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
What is the scientific method?
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypothesis
What was Copernicus's view of the universe? Be specific.
Copernicus argued for a heliocentric view of the universe. He believed the sun was the center, the earth and other bodies revolved around the sun. He also believed that the moon revolved around the earth.
What was Kepler's First Law?
Kepler's First Law stated that the orbits of the planets were not round, but elliptical.
What did Galileo discover about the heavenly bodies?
Galileo discovered that the heavenly bodies were made of material substances like the Earth.
What did Isaac Newton write? Why was the universal law of gravitation crucial to his argument?
• Isaac Newton wrote the book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also known as Principia. • The universal law of gravitation was crucial to his argument because it stated that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity. It showed that one universal law could explain motion in the universe.
What were Isaac Newton's three laws of motion?
His three laws of motion are: o Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. o The relationship between an object's mass, m, its acceleration, a, and the applied force, F, is F=ma. Acceleration and force are vectors; in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. o For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What did Andrea Vesalius write? What did he present? What idea did he cling to?
Andrea Vesalius wrote the Fabric of the Human Body. He presented a careful and accurate examination of the individual organs and general structure of the human body through human dissection. He still clung to the idea of 2 types of blood flowing in the veins and arteries.
What did William Harvey write? What did he show and prove about the human body?
William Harvey wrote "The Motion of the Heart and Blood". He showed that the heart was the beginning point of circulation and that the blood makes a complete circuit through the body. He proved that the same blood flows through the veins and arteries.
What is Francis Bacon credited with? What did he believe science and the scientific method could do?
Francis Bacon is credited with creating the scientific method in Europe. He wanted science to benefit industry, agriculture, and trade. He believed that the scientific method could be used to control and dominate nature.
Robert Boyle was the first to do what? What did his law state?
Robert Boyle was the first scientist to conduct controlled experiments. His studies led to Boyle's Law which states that the volume of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
What is a colony?
a land controlled by another nation
What is a conquistador?
the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
What is a mestizo?
a person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
What is capitalism?
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
What is mercantilism?
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
What is favorable balance of trade?
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad.
What were the reasons for exploration?
Europeans were cut off from travelling by land to the east due to routes being cut off by the Turks. Merchants had high hopes of expanding trade especially with the east. Adventurers wanted to convert the natives to Christianity. Lastly, many were looking for grandeur, glory, and the spirit of adventure.
Where did Portugal begin exploring first?
The west coast of Africa
Who found a route to India by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope?
Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama
What happened when the Portuguese returned to Calcutta?
The Portuguese later returned to Calcutta to destroy Muslim shipping and gain control of the spice trade.
Why was Portugal a limited trading empire?
Portugal was a limited trading empire because it did not have the resources to colonize the Asian region.
Who was the explorer that convinced Queen Isabella of Spain to finance his expedition?
Christopher Columbus
Know the Treaty of Tordesilla, the line of demarcation, who received what, and what did it give each country.
The Treaty of Tordesilla was an agreement reached between Spain and Portugal due to the fear that they would begin to claim each other's territory. That led to the Line of Demarcation. It extended north to south through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern most part of South America. Spain received the territories west of the line while Portugal received the east of the line. The Line of Demarcation gave Portugal control over its route around Africa and it gave Spain rights to almost all of the Americas.
Know Cabot, Vespucci, Cortes, and Pizzaro.
• John Cabot explored the New England coast line. • Amerigo Vespucci wrote letters that eventually led to the new world being called the Americas. • Hernan Cortes overthrew the Aztecs in 3 years. • Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Incan Empire.
What was the impact of colonization?
Although settlers were meant to protect the natives, that did not occur. The natives were forced to work on sugar plantations and gold/silver mines. They endured harsh labor and salvation. Diseases such as small pox, measles, and typhus took a fatal toll on the natives. It eradicated the native populations. Colonization overall destroyed the political and social structures of the natives.
Know the economic impact of the colonization. A. Columbian Exchange
Colonization had many economic impacts. One of the impacts was The Columbian Exchange which was an exchange of plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. Agriculture trade increased due to the introduction of new crops (corn, potatoes, cocoa, and tobacco). The Europeans used colonies for raw materials to support their trading empire.
Know the economic impact of the colonization. B. Mercantilism.
Another great impact was mercantilism. Mercantilism was a theory formulated due to increased international trade. The wealth of a nation depended on the countries supply of gold and silver. Nations sought a favorable balance of trade, therefore they wanted to export more than they imported.
Know the economic impact of the colonization. C. The encouraging of exports.
The last impact was the encouraging of exports. This improved transportation systems. It subsidized industries and placed high tariffs on imported goods in order to keep these goods out of the country.
Why were African slaves shipped to the Caribbean?
Sugarcane plantations demanded much labor which led to African slaves being shipped to the Caribbean.
What were the reasons for using Africans as slaves?
The Africans had been exposed to European diseases and had built immunity to them. Many Africans had farming experiences. Africans were less likely to escape because they did not know their way around. Lastly, their skin color made them easier to catch if they escaped.
What was the Middle Passage?
The Middle Passage was a voyage taken by Africans to the Americas. Africans were often packed in the lower holds of the ship where they endured many horrors such as whippings, beatings, disease, and death.
What were the consequences of the slave trade?
Africa was depopulated in many areas. Many African cultures and societies were destroyed. It increased war in Africa due to high demand for slaves. Slaves aided in the economic and cultural development of the Americas.
What is Humanism?
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
What is secular?
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
What is a patron?
a person who supports artists, especially financially
What is vernacular?
the everyday language of people in a region or country
What is an indulgence?
A pardon releasing a person from punishment due for a sin
What is annul?
To cancel or set aside
What is predestination?
The doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
What is theocracy?
A government controlled by religious leaders
What is justification?
Being made right before God by faith alone will lead to salvation
What were the 3 characteristics of Renaissance Italy?
Renaissance Italy was a largely urban and secular society. It was an age of recovery from disasters (both natural and political) and it gave new emphasis on individual ability.
What were the 3 main city-states of Italy? Explain each one. (Milan)
Milan was located in northern Italy. It was originally ruled by the Visconti family. After the death of the Visconti, Francesco Sforza came to power. Sforza was the leader of a band of mercenaries. In Milan, the two ruling families built a strong centralized state and created an efficient tax system which brought in revenues.
What were the 3 main city-states of Italy? Explain each one. (Florence)
Florence is known as the cultural center of Italy. It was controlled primarily by the Medici family. The Medici's were a powerful family of merchants/bankers. Cosimo de Medici originally took control of Florence. Control was eventually given to Lorenzo de Medici. The Medici's were known for being patrons of the arts in Florence. They are said to have commissioned work from Leonardo De Vinci, Michelangelo, Donatello, and Raphael.
What were the 3 main city-states of Italy? Explain each one. (Venice)
Venice was the link between Asia and Western Europe. Venice was a trading empire that brought tremendous profits to the merchants there.
What family was known for supporting the arts in Florence? Who originally controlled Florence? Who was control eventually given to?
The Medici family was known for supporting the arts in Florence. Cosimo de Medici originally controlled Florence and control was eventually given to Lorenzo de Medici.
What is the classical scholarship of Humanism?
The classical scholarship of Humanism is the ability to read, understand, and appreciate the writings of the ancient world.
Who was the father of Humanism? What did he write? What was it about?
Francesco Petrarch was the father of Humanism. He wrote My Secret which spoke of his struggles to achieve spiritual peace despite the temptations of fame and love.
What did Boccaccio write? What was it about?
Boccaccio wrote The DeCameron which was a collection of short stories about young Florentines who fled during the Black Death.
What was Civic Humanism?
Civic Humanism is the participation in public affairs which was essential for full human development.
What were the two major developments in paintings?
The two major developments in painting were the technical side of paintings and the investigation of human movement and anatomy.
Who created the first Renaissance masterpiece?
What did Donatello sculpt? What did his transformation of sculpture lead to?
Donatello sculpted The Bronze David. That led to an idealized representation of the human form.
Who were the four high Renaissance artists? Know what each painted as well as what their paintings reflected?
• Leonardo De Vinci o He painted the Last Supper, Mona Lisa, etc. • Raphael o He painted the School of Athens. o His paintings gave off the impression of utter relaxation. • Michelangelo o He painted the Sistine Chapel. o He sculpted the David. • Titan o He painted Bacchanal o His paintings reflected the realism of life.
Who were the two female artists of the Renaissance? What were they known for?
• Sofonsiba Anguisola o She was the first women to gain an international reputation. o She was known for her portraits of her sisters and of King Philip II of Spain. • Artemisia Gentilsechi o She was known for painting pictures of strong, heroic women.
What did the German artist Albrecht Durer produce? What did they focus on?
Albrecht Durer produced woodcuts and engravings. They focused on religious subjects, classical myths, and realistic landscapes.
What was the significance of the portraits created by Hans Holbein?
His portraits were almost photographic in detail.