enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking
declaration of independence
a statement of the reasons for the american colonies break with Britain, approved by the second continental congress in 1776
Checks and balances
Measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others
Federal system
A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states
Bill of rights
The first ten amendments to the US constitution which protects citizens' basic rights and freedoms
Old regime
The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
One if the three social classes in France before the French revolutions - the first estate consisting of the clergy; the second estate of the nobility; and the third estate; of the rest of the population
Estates general
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes in France
National Assembly
A French congress established by representatives of the third estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis court oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Great fear
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Legislative assembly
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791
A person who leaves his native country for political reasons, like nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
Reign of terror
The period, from mid-1793 to mid -1794, when Maximilian Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictators and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Coup d'etat
A sudden seizure of political power in a nation
A formal agreement - especially one between the poor and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs
Napoleonic code
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
What was the enlightenment
A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
What were the three long term effects of the enlightenment that helped shape western civilization?
Belief in progress, a more secular outlook and the importance of the individual
How did the constitution and the bill of rights reflect enlightenment ideas?
They expressed an optimistic view that reason and reform could prevail and that progress was inevitable
How did enlightenment ideas contribute to the revolutionary mood in France?
New views of power and authority in government were spreading amount the third estate. They were inspired by the success of the American revolution. They began to demand equality, liberty, and democracy
What effects did the September massacres have on the government?
The national convention was created, France became a republic, and men gained the right to vote.
Explain Napoleon's coup d'etat to gain power in France
Napoleon took action in early November 1799. Troops under his command surrounded the national legislature and drive out most of it's members. The lawmakers who remained then voted to dissolve the directory. In it's place they established a group of three consuls, one of whom was Napoleon
Describe the three steps, initiated by Klemens von Metternich, that the congress of Vienna took to restore order in Europe
Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong counties, restore a balance of power so no country would be a threat to others, and restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleons's conquests
Thomas Hobbes
Believed that people should hand over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order; known as a social contract
John Locke
Believed that people had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society; favored the idea of self-government
Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech
Proposed the separation of powers, so no group of individual could gain total control of the government
Believed good government was one freely formed by the people; all people are equal; titles of nobility should be abolished
Believed laws existed to preserve the social order; person accused should receive a speedy trial; torture should never be used; degree of punishment based on seriousness of crime; capital punishment should be abolished
Mary Wollstonecraft
Argued that women need education to become virtuous and useful; urges women to wonder the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics
Thomas Jefferson
Political leader who wrote the Declaration of Independence; supported free speech, religious freedom, and other civil liberties, but was also a slave owner; was a statesman, inventor, and architect
Louis XVI
The king of France before the French Revolution, he put France into heavy debt, and was and ineffective leader
Marie Antoinette
The queen of France before the French Revolution, she gave Louis XVI bad advice, and helped put France onto debt
His rule in France became known as the reign of terror because he sent many of his enemies to the guillotine
Klemens von Metternich
The foreign minister of Austria, who was the most influential representative of the congress of Vienna