Into which empire were the Hellenistic cities absorbed?
Roman Republic (empire)
What are the two main periods of Roman history called?
Roman Republic and Roman Imperial
What event marks the beginning of the history of the Roman Republic?
Expulsion of the Etruseans from the Roman territories.
What roman class was represented in the senate?
Well fathered (The upper class-Particians)
Who was the first great lyric poet?
What principal school of philosophy in Rome believed that the proper goal in life was pleasure?
What political events characterized the last century of the Roman Republic (133 B.C.E. to 31 B.C.E.)?
Social War, Sulla dictatorship at Rome, Caesar Conquers Gaul, Caesar rules Rome as a dictator.
Who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire?
Caesar Augustus- Octavia
Who was the greatest of all Roman Poets?
According to the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), how did Augustus want to be remembered by future generations?
One born for peace, first among equals rather then supreme ruler, spirit of peace
What invention in the first century BCE made possible the Roman use of barrel vaults and domes?
What was architecturally significant about the shape of the Pantheon's roof?
Oculus- "eye" open to the sky
Who is the most famous Roman satirist?
Who ruled the Late Roman Empire in the West from 284-305 CE?
According to the Bible, who was the fater (patriarch) of the Hebrews?
What are the four most important sources of information about Jesus?
The four Gospels-Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
Why were early Christians persecuted by the government of Rome?
They refused to express pictas to Roman gods so they were considered trators.
Who were the apologist?
what was the meaning of the Chi-Rho monogram?
Christian monogram & symbol formed from the first two letters X and P of the Greek word for Christ —called also Christogram. Christ name with the greek letters Alpha and Omega.
what famous church was built in rome during the reign of the Emperor Constant
St. Peters Basilica
what famous church was built in Jerusalem during the reign of the emperor constant
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
In what sense did the Roman Empire survive until C.E. 1453?
The capital was moved to the East Constantinople where it remained powerful for centuries. Surviving the 476 AD fall of Rome and the western empire.
It survived until its capital, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
List the stages of the jewish people?
The Period of the Patriarchs
The Period of the Exodus
The Period of the Conquest
The United Monarchy
Divided Kingdom and Exile
What was the significance of the passage of Hortensian Law? How did this influence the balance of power in the republic?
This redistribution of power led to increasing tensions between the patrician and plebian, which became further strained with the rise of a strong plebian middle class.
Name the two Romahn Assemblies that could vote in legislation?
Tribal assembly and Centuriate assembly
In what ways did augustus use the visual arts and the aeneid as propaganda tools for his legacy? Give art examples from the book and the importance of the origins of Aeneus.
Used art propaganda to mold public opinion & promote legitimacy as the supreme ruler of Rome with a reign of peace & prosperity.
Created an image of a forever youthful emperor, portraits linked him to divinities and heros, both mythical and historical. His imperial portraits promoted his piety and military accomplishments.
Arch or Alter of piece- Huge artifact with reliefs that tell the story of what Augustus did.
Primaporta- Shows with authority but barefoot like the people.
Anied written- Was written to show the sword of Troy being taken from Troy. Then moving on to found Rome. Story of Romes beginnings.
What are the ten contributing factors for the rapid rise of Christianity that was presented in class?
1. Articulate leaders stressed the nature of the basic teachings of the Gospel
2. Even Christianity's bitterest foes praised the admirable quality of the lives of the Christians.
3. Heroism of the martyrs attracted people.
4. Christianity was a universal faith.
5. Christianity was an exclusive faith
6. Christianity was a historical faith.
7. Christianity had a particularly strong appeal to women.
8. Christianity developed a large-scale organization, something no pagan cult had.
9. The peace, security and ease of transportation provided by the PaxRomanaaided Christianity immensely.
10. The Greek Language was Universal (not in our handout)
In his priase for of the virtue of love(1 Corinthians 13), Paul the Apostle says that love outlives both faith and hope. Which of the three kinds of love presented in class is he talking about? How does this love relate to God's love as presented in the New Testament?
Agape- Agape love is God's kind of love. It is seeking the welfare & betterment of another regardless of how we feel. A spiritual and selfless- model for humanity. (Actions benifit the loved one)
Philao- Phileo love is a love of the affections. It is delighting to be in the presence of another, a warm feeling that comes and goes with intensity. Brotherly love. (cherish)
Eros- Eros love meant physical passion; its gratification and fulfillment. It is the only kind of love that God restricts to a one-man, one-woman relationship within the bounds of marriage. Erotic love- (physical)
Agape love was displayed when Jesus went to the cross and died for you and me regardless of how he felt.
Write on issues related to Exclusive Monothesim and Ethical monotheism in the Hebrew Bilble.
Exclusive monotheism only one god exists; other gods simply do not exist, or they are false gods or demons.
Ethical monotheism- Attached ethics to their religion. God demanded a particular kind of behavior as a guarantee of his continued benevolence. (Practicing benevolence and a loving attitude towards others)
Write at least one page on the concept of "covenant" in the Hebrew bible.
In the Bible a covenant is a relationship based upon mutual commitments. It typically involves promises, obligations, and rituals. Terms testament & covenant can be used interchangeably, though covenant tends to be used for the relationship between Jews and God.
A formal agreement, contract, testament, between two parties, with specific obligations on each side.
covenants often promise specific benefits or blessings for people who keep the terms of the covenant;
but also threaten punishments, or curses for people who break the terms of the covenant.
Covenants need to be ratified formally, usually sealed with blood, and thus often involve animal sacrifices.
When studying the Roman Republic we noticed some similar characteristics with out modern American form of government. Name those characteristics and practices that are similar to our republic?
Similarities between the Roman Republic and U.S. government
- both feature executive and legislative branches
- both systems have checks and balances embedded
- the head executives can be removed from power by legislators
- the head executives have military responsibilities
- both lead executives have veto power
- the executives are charged with enforcing the laws
- the legislative bodies make laws and control the budgets
- written law codes exist in both societies
- political divisions exist in both (Rome = patricians vs. plebeians / U.S. = citizens of a more liberal persuasion vs. citizens of a more conservative persuasion)
- wealthy people are more likely to get elected
- both place the authority of the state above that of the individual