A diagnosticterm that refers to difficulty producing speech sounds (phonological disorder) or with speech fluency (stuttering); difficulty using spoken language to communicate (expressive language disorder); or difficulty understanding what other people say (mixed expressivereceptive language disorder).
communication disorders
skill necessary for reading that involves breaking words down into parts
An approach to teaching children with learning disorders based on the premise that to improve a skill the instructional activities have to approximate those of the skill being taught
direct instruction
Disorder of reading not due to low intelligence
A form ofcommunication disorder characterized by deficits in expression despite normal comprehension of speech
expressive language disorder
The education strategies that are based on the premise that the abilities of children with special needs will improve from associating with normally developing peers and being spared the effects of labeling and special placements
A general term that refers to significant problems in mastering one or more of the following skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, mathematics.
learning disabilities
A diagnostic term that refers to specific problems in reading (disorder of reading), math (disorder of mathematics), or writing ability (disorder of written expression) as determined by achievement test results that are substantially below what would be expected for the child's age, schooling, and intellectual ability
learning disorders
A form of communication disorder characterized by deficits in expressive language coupled with a difficulty in understanding some aspects of speech (i.e.

, deficits in receptive language).

mixed receptive-expressive language disorder
Learning disabilities characterized by deficits related to right-hemisphere brain functioning, such as problems in social skills, spatial orientation, and problem solving
nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD)
The basic sounds that make up language.
broad construct that includes recognition of the relationship that exists between sounds and letters, detection of rhyme and alliteration, and awareness that sounds can be manipulated within syllables in words
phonological awareness
form of communication disorder characterized by difficulties in articulation or sound production, but not necessarily in word expression
phonological disorder
The ability to learn and store phonemes as well as the rules for combining the sounds into meaningful units or words. Deficits in phonology are a chief reason that most children and adults with communication and learning disorders have problems in language-based activities such as learning to read and spell
A basic premise of definitions of learning disorders that denotes a disparity or discrepancy between an individual's measured ability and actual performance
unexpected discrepancy
Learning Disability
_____ _____ is a general term for communication and learning problems that occur in the absence of other obvious conditions, such as mental retardation or brain damage.
spoken or written language
Children and adults with learning disabilites show specific deficits in _____ or ____ ____, often referred to as relative strengths and weaknesses.

Parents and Educators
______ and ______ assumed a major role in bringing recognitiona dn services to children with learning disabilities.
difficulty producing speech sounds, demonstrating speech fluency, using spoken language to communicate, o understanding what other people say.
Speech and language problems that emerge during early child hood include? (4)
True of False: Even though most children with communication disorders acquire normal language by mid to late adolescence, early communication disorders are developmenmtally connected to the later onset of learning disorders.
Expressive language disorder
______ ______ _____ is a communication disorder defined as a discrepancy between receptive language and expressive language.

Genetic influences and slow or abnormal brain muturation. EArly ear infections may play a causal role in some cases.
Causes of communication disorders include? (3)
True of False:Treatment of children with communication disorders is often necessary before a child attends school.
Stuttering or speech dysfuency occurs mostly in younger children peaking around age ___. REcovery usually occurs once the child enters school.
reading mathmatics or writing ability.


Learning disorders consist of specific problems in _______, _______, or ________ _______ with reading disorders are the most common. __________ overlap and writing disorders overap considerably with reading disorders.
behavioral disorders
Although learning disorders overlap with _______ _______ they are distinct problems. Opportunities to develop and use particular strengths lead to more successul adult outcomes.
phonological problems
Learning diosrders in reading may be caused by ______ _____ that arise from physiological abnormalities in the processing of cisual information in the brain.

These decifits are believed to be largely inherited.

________ for children with Communication and learning disorders involve educational strategies that capitalize on existing strengths and behavioral strategies invovlign direct insturction.
cognitive behavioral techniquest and computer assisted instruction are also used successfully.
What treatments are used successfully? (2)
Kaplan New GRE Vocabulary Flashcards by Kaplan (2011, Cards)
What is the APA definition of Learning Disabilities?
Demoralization Low self-esteem Deficits in social skills School drop-out Comorbidity with conduct disorder, oppositional defiance disorder, ADHD, depression, and dysthymia. Underlying problems in cognitive processing (visual perception, lingustic processes, attention, memory).

What are the Associated Features of Learning Disabilities according to APA?
Adopts an out-dated discrepancy model. Doesn't specify what is "substantially below expected." Focus on childhood. Ignores how cultural/social factors or sensory impairments might influence learning problems
What are the problems with the APA definition?
Forms the basis for most states criteria for defining learning disability. Disorder in one or more psychological processes involved in understanding language manifesting itself in the imperfect ability to Listen Think Speak Read Spell Do mathematical calculations Includes conditions involving perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Excludes learning problems due to visual, hearing, and motor handicaps; mental retardation, emotional disturbance, and environmental, cultural, and economic disadvantage.

What is the Federal Definition of Learning Disorders (1975, 1997, 2004)? (4)
Uses out-dated terminology, e.g., "handicaps," "minimal brain dysfunction." Processes are ill-defined. What psychological processes might underlie a learning disability? Process training, independent of academic intervention, doesn't do much good.

What does "imperfect ability" mean? As written, root of problem appears due to "understanding language." There are non-language learning disabilities. Why limit inclusions to perceptual handicaps, brain injury, MBD, dyslexia, and aphasia? Why shouldn't apraxias and dyspraxias, for example, be included? Definition seems to suggest that one can't be both blind and have a learning disability or mentally retarded and also have a learning disability.

What are the problems with the Federal Definition of Learning Disorders?
A general term for a heterogeneous group of disorders. Disorder is manifested in significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of Listening Speaking Reading Writing Reasoning Mathematical Abilities Disorder is intrinsic to the individual Presumed due to CNS dysfunction May manifest itself across the life-span Although the following conditions do not make one learning disabled, the disability may co-occur with problems in Self-regulatory behavior Social perception Social interactions Disability may co-occur with other handicapping (disabling) conditions (sensory impairments, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbances) or with extrinsic influences (cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction).

Disabilities are not the result of those conditions.

What's National Joint Committee definition for Learning Disabilities? (7)
Why limit LD to difficulties in listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, and mathematical abilities? Are there other academic skills that may be missed in this list, e.g., attention, planning, decision making, concept formation, Seems to over-emphasize language-based deficits.

Does it matter whether the deficit is intrinsic to the individual? Whether the disorder is intrinsic or extrinsic, the individual may still manifest disability in learning and one that needs to be addressed and remediated. If learning disabilities can occur across the life-span, can adults develop learning disabilities during adulthood or does the disability have to manifest itself in some form during childhood?

What are the Problems with NJCLD Definition? (3)
Receptive Language Auditory Processing Expressive Language Basic Reading (phonological decoding) Reading Comprehension Written Expression Mathematical Calculation Mathematical Reasoning/Problem Solving
Types of Learning Disabilities (8)
Problems with coordination and balance, motor clumsiness Problems with direction Problems with perceptual-motor coordination and speed. Speech and language delays Emotionality and impulsivity Problems with metacognitive skills (executive processes) Memory problems Socio-emotional problems Motivational problems External vs. internal locus of control Negative attribution Learned helplessness
Features of Children with Learning Disabilities (9) (3)
Lack of theoretical agreement on what constitutes a learning disability. Multidisciplinary disagreement on how to assess and intervene with learning disabled children.

Belief that some of what is diagnosed as learning disability is simply a sociological phenomenon. Difficulties in drawing clear boundaries around what is LD versus MR versus Emotionally/Behaviorally Disturbed versus motivational versus borderline intelligence.

Why is it difficult to develop standard diagnostic procedures to identify LD? (4)
No standard battery of tests or test for identifying LD in children. In the past (and in some instances currently), LDs were identified on the basis of a significant discrepancy between achievement and intelligence. Lack of agreement on how much of a gap should exist. Encourages a "wait and fail" model.

Makes questionable some diagnoses of LD, e.g., does a child with an IQ of 140 and a standard score of 95 on reading achievement have a learning disability. There is a significant gap! A currently popular model for identifying LD is the Response to Intervention Model, i.e., how is the child functioning within the classroom? Formative Evaluation: Uses in-class measures of children's progress toward academic goals.

Curriculum-Based Assessments: Child is compared to peers in classroom or district, not some general norm-group. Authentic Assessments: Use of portfolios and nontraditional ways of assessing knowledge and skill.

Diagnosing Learning Disabilities (3) (3,3)