True or false.All children with ADHD are hyperactive.
false - many others are inattentive but not overly active
ADHD: signs/symptoms
- forgetfulness- trouble paying attention- overly impulsive- over focursed ontask and has trouble switching and completing task- impatience- constantly fidgets and squirms- inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive
ADHD inattentive
- fails to five close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork- has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play- does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, duties- has difficulty organizing tasks and activities- often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or activities- is easily distracted- is often forgetful in daily activities
ADHD hyperactive
- fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat- leaves seat when remaining seated is expected- runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations- has difficulty playing quietly- is often 'on the go', acts as if 'driven by motor', talks excessively
ADHD impulsive
- blurts out answers before questions have been completed- has difficulty awaiting turn- interrupts or intrudes on others
ADHD: management
- behavioral therapy- parent and teacher training- medications
What are the 3 main criterion for diagnosing mental retardation?
- significantly sub average intellectual functioning- concurrent deficits or impairments in present adaptive functioning in at least 2 of the following: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, etc- the onset is before age 18 years
Mental retardation: identifying factors
- deficits in memory skills- difficulty learning social rules- difficult with problem solving skills- self care skills are also inhibiited- lack of social development skills
Mental retardation: signs/symptoms
- infants reach developmental mile stones later than their peers- learn more slowly than a typical child- 4 types: mild, moderate, severe,and profound
Mild mental retardation
- acquire academic skills up to about the 6th grade level- fairly self-sufficient and in some cases live independently with community and social support
Moderate mental retardation
- carry out work and self-care tasks with moderate supervisor- acquire communication skills in childhood and are able to live and function successfully within community in supervised environments
Severe mental retardation
- may master very basic self-care skills and some communication skills- able to live in a group home
Profound mental retardation
- may be able to develop basic self-care and communication skills with appropriate support and training- need a high level of structure and supervision
What are learning disorders?
academic function that is substantially below what is expected given teh person's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education
Dyslexia: reading disorder
2 types- understanding teh relationship between sounds, letters, and words- inability to grasp the meaning of words, phrases, and paragraphs
Dyslexia: signs/symptoms
- letter and word recognition- understanding words and ideas- reading speed and fluency- general vocabulary skills
Dyscalculia: mathematics disorder
2 major areas of weakness- visual spatial difficultation = trouble processing what they see- language processing difficulties = trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears
Dyscalculia: signs/symptoms
- shows difficulty understanding concepts of place value, and quantity, number lines, positive and negative value, carrying and borrowing- difficulty understanding and doing word problems- exhibits difficulty using steps involved in math operations- shows difficulty understanding fractions- challenged making change and handling money- displays difficulty recognizing patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing- difficulty understanding concepts related to time - exhibits difficulty organizing problems on the page, keeping numbers line up, following through on long division problems
Dysgraphia: writing disorder
2 types- basic = physical difficulty forming words and letters- expressive = struggle to organize thoughts on paper
Dysgraphia: signs/symptoms
- neatness and consistency of writing- accurately copying letters and words- spelling consistency- writing organization and coherence
LD not otherwise specified
disorders in learning that do not meet criteria for any specific learning disorder- difficulty in all 3 areas
LD: management
- accomodations and modifications- special education - IDEA, ADA