Meaning = Contextualized
In content, part of the contexts of life which for teachers is the school environment or specific components of an environment
Examples of Purposeful Activities:
Examples of purposeful activities are: -conducting a science experiment-understanding an event in a social studies book-authoring an imaginative narrative-giving a math presentation-composing a descriptive essay-participating in small group discussions etc.
Interchangeable words to describe teaching skills-in-activities:
-Contextualized Skill Teaching-Activity-Based Teaching-Naturalistic Teaching
Teaching methodology most commonly used to teach skills-in-activities?
What is Scaffolding?
An instructional technique where the teacher models the desired learning strategy/task, then gradually shifts responsibility for using the strategy on the student.-this enables a student to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal which would be beyond their skill level.
Purpose of Scaffolding?
Not to aid the student in completing a task but to aid the handover of the skills needed to complete the task.-Important to know the difference between HANDOVER and HELPING-The focus of scaffolding MUST be on the students active participation in the task-This enables the student to acquire knowledge about tasks/goals/strategies that will lead to increased independence on said task.
Who Coined the Concept for ZPD?
-Lev Vygotsky ZPD is the basis for scaffolding-Vygotsky believed that any student could be taught any subject effectively by applying the scaffold techniques within the students ZPD
According to Vygotsky, why does learning happen and why do we develop?
-We interact with the environment-We develop because we learn-Learning perceives development
According to Vygotsky, what needs to happen in order for us to learn?
We need to be presented with tasks that are just outside of our natural abilities
According to Vygotsky, as teachers, what must be consciously consider?
-We must be conscious of the fact that every student has a different ZPD, this means differentiation.
Example of ZPD: Little JohnnyWhy is this task considered inside Johnny's ZPD?
Johnny cannot swim ? if he tried on his own, he would drown ? Johnny gets help from swimming instructor ? eventually Johnny can swim by himself-Because it is a task he cannot accomplish on his own, but with the proper scaffolds, Johnny will be able to accomplish this task with the encouragement and guidance from someone else.
2 Zones of Development
-Zone of Actual Development-Zone of Proximal Development
The Zone of Actual Development (ZAD)
What a student can do unassisted.-The student has mastered the skill-The student may still make mistakes, but they are also more likely to recognize their errors and correct them independently
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
The space in which instruction and new learning takes place.
-i.e., the space between the students ZPD and those contexts in which the student needs scaffolding to successfully perform the task/apply a strategy-ZPD is where supported learning occurs
3 Characteristics of Scaffolding
-Collaborative-Must be within learners ZPD-Is gradually withdrawn with student competence
Scaffolding is part of _______ or _______. It is a _______ into ongoing _______.
instruction, intervention, window, assessment
The dynamic interplay between _______ and _______ is the art of _______.
instruction, assessment, scaffolding
Vygotsky's 4 Phases of Scaffolding
1. Modeling (talk aloud, think aloud, performance)2. Student Application3. Scaffolding Fading4. Mastery
Vygotsky's 4 Phases of Scaffolding: Phase 1: Modeling (definition)3 types of modeling
Teaching behaviour that shows how one should feel, think, or act within a given situationFirst Type of Modelling: Talk-Aloud-a verbal demonstration of the steps needed to complete the task-NOT VERBALIZING THOUGHT PROCESSSecond Type of Modelling: Think-Aloud-the verbalization of the THOUGHT PROCESS used to complete task.
- Students must understand your thought process in order to apply their own thinking processesThird Type of Modelling: Performance Modelling-a physical demonstration of the task to be completed-important to SHOW students how to complete task so they can use this same strategy when they complete the task independently
Vygotsky's 4 Phases of Scaffolding: Phase 2: Student Application
The teacher must constantly access student understanding by:-observing performance-paying attention to errors-offer frequent assistance and feedback
Vygotsky's 4 Phases of Scaffolding: Phase 3: Scaffolding Fading
The teacher offers progressively less assistance and feedback to the student as they begin to master new content/process
Vygotsky's 4 Phases of Scaffolding: Phase 4: Mastery
The student has achieved a level of mastery-Mastery occurs at 80%
Challenges of Scaffolding (4)
-Teacher needs to relinquish some control and allow their students to make errors-Changing the teachers tend to ask (what students can do on their own vs. what students can do with support-Teacher may not properly implement scaffolding-Knowing how much help to give a student (too much leads to boredom and too little leads to frustration)
Task Analysis (5) FIRST STEP IN BOTH SHAPING AND SCAFFOLDING
-steps and skills (cognitive, physical, linguistic)-task complexity-Environmental conditions-necessary equipment/materials-unique factors
Shaping: Discrete Skill InstructionCommonly used in the 1980s
Breaking down the final desired activity into a series of individual tasks, which requires task analysis
Shaping: Qualities and Example
-Discrete skill instruction (Breaking down the final desired activity into a series of individual tasks, which requires task analysis)-Individual tasks and sub-steps in an activity are taught and fully mastered in a sub sequential manner-Difficulty level is strictly controlled-Movement to the new task or sub-step occurs only when independent mastery is achieved-lack of progress through sequence leaves students feeling incompetentE.g., student learning how to dribble and THEN learning the game instead of students learning how to do more than one thing at once (learning how to dribble in a game)
Shaping and Scaffolding: A comparison
-Both involve reducing task demands on the student by simplifying the task-Both are well reasoned ways of supporting student learning-Shaping was found to be overall not meaningful/purposeful while scaffolding represents a learning approach that attempts to BRIDGE the GENERALIZATION GAP.
2 Types of Scaffolds:
Structural and Interactive
What are Structural Scaffolds?
-STATIC FEATURES of the context that can be PREPLANNED or manipulated by the teacher-supports a teacher can utilize which include ENGINEERING A LEARNING CONTEXT or using a skill routine.
Structural Scaffolds: Engineering a learning context involves:
-Manipulating an activity to maximize the use of the skill/strategy-providing internal predictability -Allowing repeated opportunities for the skill to be used/practicede.g., coloured tiles for the student to use when segmenting individual sounds in a word
What are Interactive Scaffolds?
Intentional, dynamic responsive actions on the part of the instructor DURING instruction
Interactive Scaffolding aims to: (8)
-manage task complexity-recruit attention-provide structure-control frustration-encourage movement-direct attention-make critical features-demonstrate solutions
Interactive Scaffolding: Response Facilitations
Scaffolds teacher provides to guide student towards demonstrating the desired outcome
Interactive Scaffolding: Linguistic Facilitations
Scaffolds teacher provides that guide the student to use more complex language-can be used to support both oral and written language
Interactive Scaffolding: Regulatory Faciliations
Scaffolds teachers provide that guide student focus and motivation on the learning outcome
Peers can function as BOTH _______ and _______ scaffolds.
The learner functioning as the the teacher (learners take turns being the teacher)
The words of the teacher/peer become the students' words, externally as _______ at first, then _______ as the students' own _______.
speech, internally, thoughts
R - repeated opportunitiesA - Attention and engagementI - Intensity of instruction (similar to Repeated Opportunities but more focused globally on frequencyS - Systemic Support (systematic, dynamic)E - explicit skill focus (most challenging aspect of contextualized instruction. Involves directly targeting a skill)
For learning to occur, there must be _______ _______ for _______.
repeated, opportunities, practice