An entity is a person, place, thing or event about which information is maintained
Porter's ______helps(s) companies identify general strategies, whereas his _____ help(s) to identify specific activities where companies can use the strategies for greatest impact
Competitive Forces Model; Value Chain Model
The best way to capture the data in an organized format is to use a database
Increasing amounts of external data need to be considered in making organizational decisions
Data Rot refers to the data itself
Which of the following has the broadest impact on an organization?
Decisions about data
Which is not a source for external data?
Corporate Databases
Its important for application and data to be dependent of each other
Which of the following is not a reason why managing data is difficult over time?
-New systems are developed.-The media the data are stored on becomes-problematic.-New sources of data are created.-The amount of data increases exponentially.


Not including alphabetic characters in a Social Security Number field is an example of _____.
Data Integrity
A negative value for a student's grade point average is an example of a data integrity problem.
_____ occurs when applications cannot access data associated with other applications.
Data Isolation
_____ occurs when the same data are stored in many places.
Data Redundancy
An attribute is any characteristic or quality that describes a particular entity.

_____ occurs when various copies of the data agree.
Data Consistency
The secondary key is a field that identifies a record with complete uniqueness.
Entity-relationship diagrams are documents that show the primary and secondary keys associated with a conceptual data model.
You would be an instance of your university's STUDENT class.

The relational database model is based on the concept of three-dimensional tables.
Structured query language is a relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple statements.
The data dictionary stores definitions of data elements, characteristics that use the data elements, physical representation of the data elements, data ownership, and security.
When data are normalized, attributes in the table depend on the primary key and any secondary keys.

In a data warehouse, existing data are constantly purged as new data come in.
An organization's data warehouse generally maintains its operational data
Online analytical processing (OLAP) involves the analysis of accumulated data by end users.
Data marts are designed for the end-user needs in a strategic business unit or department.
Master data are generated and captured by operational systems.
Tacit knowledge is the more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge.

Explicit knowledge refers to the cumulative store of subjective learning, which is personal and hard to formalize.
Tacit Knowledge is:
Unwritten, unspoken, and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge held by practically every normal human being-to the cumulative store of subjective learning, which is personal and hard to formalize.
Explicit Knowledge is:
the more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge.
Place the following members of the data hierarchy in their correct order: _____.
Bit - byte - field - record - file - database
A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number.
A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of related files.

In a database, the primary key field is used to _____.
uniquely identify a record
_____ are fields in a record that have someidentifying information but typically do notidentify the record with complete accuracy.
Secondary Keys
As an individual student in your university's student database, you are a(n) _____ of theSTUDENT class.
At your university, students can take more than one class, and each class can have more than one student. This is an example of what kind of
In a university's relational database, the student record contains information regarding the student's last name.

The last name is a(n):

A database management system is primarily a(n) _____.
interface between applications and a database
In the relational database model, related tables can be joined when they contain common _____.
_____ tell the database management system which records are joined with others in related tables.
Primary Keys
A standardized language used to manipulate data is _____.
structured query language
Data dictionaries provide which of the following advantages to the organization?
They reduce data inconsistency.

They enable faster program development.They make it easier to modify data and information.Both "They enable faster program development." and "They make it easier to modify data and information."All of these

_____ is a method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form.

When data are normalized, attributes in the table depend only on the ____________ .
Primary Key
The data in a data warehouse have which of the following characteristics?
They are organized by subject.
The data in a data warehouse:
are not updated.
The process of moving data from various sources into the data warehouse is called:
extracting, transforming, and loading.
Compared to data warehouses, data marts have which one of the following characteristics?
They cost less.

_____ is a formal approach to managing data consistently across an entire organization.
Data Governance
_____ provide(s) companies with a single version of the truth for their data.
Master Data Management
Organizations are turning to data governance for which of the following reasons?
They are responding to federal regulations
_____ describe the activities of the business, whereas_____ categorize(s), aggregate(s), and evaluate(s) datagenerated by the organization's activities.
Transaction data, master data
_____ is a process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer, and apply expertise that are part of the organization's memory and typically reside inside the organization in an unstructured manner.
Online Analytical Processing
Historically, management information systems havefocused on capturing, storing, managing, and reporting_____ knowledge.

The most important benefit of knowledge management systems is:
They make best practices available to employees.
is not a component of a local area network?
A local area network connects two or more communicating devices in a broad geographical area.
Network interface cards are special adapters that link an individual device to the communications medium on a local area network.
Wide-area networks have a large capacity, and they typically use a single communications channel.

_____ refers to the range of frequencies available in any communications channel.
advantages of computer networks?
They enable organizations to be more flexible.They enable companies to share hardware,computer applications, and data.They enable geographically dispersed employees to work together.They provide a critical link between businesses and their customersALL OF THESE
The components of a local area network include which of the following?
File serverClient computersWireline or wireless communications mediaNetwork interface cards ALL OF THESE
Digital signals are continuous waves that transmit information by altering the characteristics of the waves.

A _____ connects dissimilar networks.
Digital signals have two parameters: frequency and amplitude.
A _____ sends messages through several connected LANs or to a wide- area network.
Cable media use wires or cables to transmit data and information.
A _____ allows a device to physically connect to a local area network's communications medium.

Network Interface Card
Cladding is the coating that surrounds fiber-optic cables and prevents light from leaking out of the fiber.
All of the following statements concerning wide-area networks are true except:
They are provided by individual companies.
Wide-area Networks:
They have large capacity.They cover large geographical areas.They combine multiple communications channels.

The Internet is an example of a wide-area network

Systems that use digital subscriber lines (DSL) do not require modems.
_____ are hardware devices that support data transmission and reception across a telecommunications system.
Communications channels
Which of the following is not a communications channel?
Integrated Circuits
The cable medium with the highest bandwidth is:
Fiber-optic cable
Currently, ATM networks operate only on fiber-optic cable.
Data are sent through a fiber-optic cable by a(n) _______.

Which data transmission technology requires fiber-optic cable, can transmit up to 2.5 gigabits per second, and is more expensive than DSL?
Asynchronous transfer mode
Intranets support discovery, communication, and collaboration inside an organization.
Which of the following is a digital transmission system that defines circuits that operate at different rates, all of which are multiples of the basic 64 Kbps used to transport a single voice call?
T-Carrier System
A protocol is:
A standard set of rules and procedures for the control of communications in a network
An extranet is a network that uses Internet technologies and is designed to serve the information needs of a single organization.
Internet kiosks are computer terminals located in public places like libraries and airports.

A domain name is the official name assigned to an Internet site, consisting of multiple parts, separated by dots, which are translated from right to left in locating the site.
The World Wide Web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture.
Uniform resource locators (URLs) point to the address of a specific resource or site on the Web.
Forward auctions are auctions that sellers use as a channel to many potential buyers.
Even though B2C EC is much larger by volume, B2B is more complex.

An electronic storefront is a Web site on the Internet that represents a many stores.
Virtual banks are those banks that are dedicated only to Internet transactions.
Channel conflict occurs when click-and-mortar companies have problems with their regular distributors when they sell directly to customers online.
Difficulties in order fulfillment are most closely associated with which type of electronic commerce?
Internet advertising is impersonal, one-way mass communication.
________ is the process whereby a fully automated electronic commerce transaction eliminates middlemen.
Hacking is the indiscriminate distribution of electronic ads without permission of the receiver.

Which of the following is not an electronic commerce application?
Conducting an auction
An Electronic Commerce Application:
home bankingbuying stocksevaluating an employeebuying real estate
Business-to-consumer applications comprise the majority of electronic commerce volume.
_______ e-commerce is also known as e-tailing.
_____ auctions are the most common auction model for large purchases.
Mostly, eBay uses a _____ auction.
Horizontal exchanges connect buyers and sellers across many industries.
In _____ auctions, there is one buyer who wants to buy a product.

Suppliers submit bids, and the lowest bid wins.

Direct payment of Social Security benefits is an example of ______ e-commerce.
In most cases, traditional payment systems are not effective for electronic commerce.
In ________ e-commerce, an organization provides information and services to its workers.
The degree of digitization relates to all of the following except:
the size of e-commerce transactions
Degree of digitalization has:
the product or service soldthe process by which the product is producedthe delivery agent or intermediary
Smart cards can be used as credit cards, debit cards, and/or loyalty cards.

E-commerce affects only businesses that sell products online.
Electronic commerce is the buying and selling of products, services, and information via computer networks, primarily the Internet
Electronic business is a broader term than electronic commerce.
In traditional commerce, the product or service, the process, and the delivery agent are physical.
In traditional commerce, one or more of the product or service, the process, and the delivery agent can be digital.
In partial electronic commerce, at least one of the product or service, the process, or the delivery agent is digital.

Companies that are engaged only in electronic commerce are considered virtual (or pure-play) organizations.
With business-to-consumer EC, the sellers are organizations and the buyers are individuals.
Internet-based classified ads increase the number of potential buyers.
. In business-to-employee electronic commerce, an organization uses EC internally to provide information and services to its employees.
The reverse auction is the most common auction model for large purchases.