Cognitive View of Learning
General approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge
General knowledge
Information that is useful in many different kinds of tasks; information that applies to situations
Sensory Memory
System thatholds sensory information very briefly
Information processing
The human minds activity of taking in, storing, and using information
Interpretation of sensory information
Bottom-up Processing
Perceiving based on noticing separate defining features and assembling then into a recognizable pattern
Working memory
The information that you are focusing on at a given moment
A best example or best representative of a category
Top-down processing
Perceiving based on the context and the patterns you expect to occur in that situation
Focus on a stimulus
The ability to perform throughly learned tasks without much effort.
Short term memory
Component of memory system that holds information for about 20 seconds
Visuospatial sketchpad
Part of working memory. A holding system for visual and spatial information
The weakening and fading of memories with the passage of time
Long term memory
Permanent store of knowledge
Grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger units
Maintenance rehearsal
Keeping information in working memory by repeating it to yourself
Schema or expected plan for the ssequence of steps in a common event such as buying groceries or ordering take-out pizza
Flashbulb memory
Clear, vivid memories of emotuonally important events in your life
Activating a concept in memory or the spread of activation from one concept to another
Procedural memory
Long-term memory for how to do things
The physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event
Levels of processing theory
Theory that recall of information is based on how deeply it is processed
Process of searching for and finding information in long-term memory
Recreating information by using memories, expectations, logic, and existing knowledge
The process that occurs when remembering certain information is hampered by the presence of other information
techniques for remembering; also the art of memory
Loci method
technique of associating items with specific places
Peg-type mnemonics
Systems of associating items with cue words
Technique for remembering names, phrases, or steps by using the first letter of each word to form a new, memorableword
Chain mnemonics
Memory strategies that associate one element in a series with the next element
Keyword method
System of associating new words or concepts withsimilar-sounding cue words and images
Massed practice
Practice for a single extended period
Distrubuted practice
Practice in brief periods with rest intervals
Part learning
Breaking a list of rote learning items into shorter lists
Automated basic skills
Skills that are applied without serious thought
Rote memorization
Remembering information by repetition without necessary understanding the meaning of the information
Serial-position effect
The tendency to remember the beginning and the end but not the middle of a list
Massed practice
Practice for a single extended period
Domain-specific strategies
Consciously applied skills to reach goals in a particular subject or problem area