is the way an organism reacts to a change in its internal condition or external environment.
is any kind of signal that carries information and can be detected.
is a single, specific reaction to a stimulus.
external stimuli
can include light, sound, odors, and heat.
innate behavior
is also called an instinct, or inborn behavior; They appear in fully functional form the first time they are performed even though the animal may have had no previous experience with the stimuli to which it responds.
acquired behavior
Behavior that is the result of an experience; they develop over time.

4 types of acquired behavior
Habituation; Classical Conditioning; Operant Conditioning; Insight Learning
A process by which an animal decreases or stops its response to a repetitive stimulus that neither rewards nor harms the animal.
classical conditioning
an animal makes a mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishment
famous work or classical conditioning
operant conditioning
occurs when an animal learns to behave in a certain way through repeated practice, in order to receive a reward or avoid a punishment.


"Skinner Box"
insight learning
most complicated form of learning, or reasoning; Occurs when an animal applies something it has already learned to a new situation, without a period of trial-and-error.
Some very young animals learn to recognize and follow the first moving object that they see during a critical time early in their lives (usually their mother).
allows an animal to survive periods when food and other resources may not be available.
is the periodic movement from one place to another and then back again.
circadian rhythms
Behavioral cycles that occur in daily patterns are called
courtship behavior
an animal sends out stimuli in order to attract a member of the opposite sex.
is a series of behaviors performed the same way by all members of a population for the purpose of communicating.
social behavior
Whenever animals interact with members of their own species, they are exhibiting
animal society
is a group of related animals of the same species that interact closely and often cooperate with one another.
is the protection of a specific area.
involves the passing of information from one organism to another.
are chemical messengers that affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species to mark a territory or to signal readiness to mate.
is a system of communications that combines sounds, symbols, or gestures to a set of rules about word order and meaning (grammar and syntax).