instrumental conditioning procedure in which the participant's behavior prevents the delivery of an aversive stimulus
Avoidance trial
trial in a discriminated avoidance procedure in which an avoidance response is made and prevents the delivery of the aversive stimulus
Discriminated avoidance
avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurrences of the aversive stimulus are signaled by a CS
Discriminative punishment
procedure in which responding is punished in the presence of a particular stimulus and not punished in the absence of that stimulus
Escape trial
trial during discriminated avoidance training in which the required avoidance response is not made and the aversive US is presented; performance of the instrumental response during the aversive stimulus results in termination of the aversive stimulus
Escape from fear (EFF) procedure
situation in which subjects learn an instrumental response to escape from or terminate a conditioned stimulus that elicits fear; predicted y the two-process theory of avoidance and provides a coping mechanism for individuals suffering from excessive fear
procedure for extinguishing avoidance behavior in which the CS is presented while the participant is prevented from making the avoidance response
Free-operant avoidance
same as nondiscriminated avoidance
Nondiscriminated avoidance
avoidance conditioning procedure in which occurrences of the aversive stimulus are not signaled by an external stimulus; originally called Sidman avoidance
procedure for discouraging behavior in which the participant is not only required to correct or rectify a mistake but is also required to go beyond that by, for example, extensively practicing the correct response alternative
Predatory imminence
perceived likelihood of being attacked by a predator
instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus; if the participant performs the instrumental response, it receives the aversive stimulus; if the participant does not perform the instrumental response, it does not receive the aversive stimulus; typically suppresses instrumental behavior
R-S interval
interval between the occurrence of an avoidance response and the next scheduled presentation of the aversive stimulus in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure; sets the duration of safety created by each avoidance response in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure
Response blocking
blocking the opportunity to make the avoidance response so that the subject is exposed to a fear stimulus without being able to escape from it
Safety signal
stimulus that signals the absence of an aversive event
Shock-frequency reduction
hypothesis according to which reduction in the frequency of shock serves to reinforce avoidance behavior
Shuttle avoidance
type of avoidance conditioning procedure in which the required instrumental response consists of going back and forth between two sides of an experimental apparatus on successive trials
Signaled avoidance
same as discriminated avoidance
Species-specific defense reactions (SSDRs)
species-typical responses animals perform in an aversive situation
S-S interval
interval between successive presentations of the aversive stimulus in a nondiscriminated avoidance procedure when the avoidance response is not performed
Time out
period during which the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement is removed; may involve removal of the participant from the situation where reinforcers are available
Two-process theory of avoidance
theory originally developed to explain discriminated avoidance learning that presumes the operation of two mechanisms: classical conditioning of fear to the warning signal or CS and instrumental reinforcement of the avoidance response through termination of the warning signal and consequent fear reduction