Mongol - Overview
conquered first China, then the Islamic world, then Eastern Europe - tolerant of religions allowing eastern orthodox church to develop in Keiv and eventually Moscow to grow, united most of Asia and E. Europe into one contiguous empire
Mongol - Technology
-bows and arrows were superior long range weapons that could kill from hundreds of yards away
-decimal system (men divided into groups of 10, 100, 1000 etc.)
-messengers on horseback
-encountered gun powder while fighting China
-developed the handgun and cannon and introduced them into Europe
-use of stirrups; Mongol children could ride as soon as they were able to walk.
-Mongol warriors could ride for days, sleeping and eating in the saddle.
Mongol - Method of Conquerring
-incorporated conquered peoples into their empire
-brilliant leadership, survival skills, natural toughness
-100% horse-based military -superior at mobilization and speed
-demanded subjugation and tribute - devastated any place which resisted including mass slaughters of defeated enemies
-armies were well organized made up of basic fighting units consisting of 10,000 cavalrymen which were further divided into units of 1000, 100 and 10 warriors with commanders at each level responsible for the training, arming and discipline of those under them; extensive use of scouting parties
-used pincer movement to defeat larger armies
Mongol - Method of Ruling
-valued loyalty even of enemies to theirown leadership, executed traitors
to his own cause or turncoats who abandoned enemy commanders in his favor. His
generosity to brave foes was also legendary.
-regarded city dwellers as soft and adopted a policy of terrifying retribution when resisted slaughtering townspeople or selling them into slavery
-those that did not resist were required to pay tribute
-often spared the lives of famed scholars whom they employed as advisers and artisans; consulted Confucian scholars, Muslim engineers, Daoist holy men
-incorporated Turkic horsemen into armies
-refused to live in cities but setup traditional encampments
-sought to establish the basis for lasting peace and prosperity in his domains
Mongol - Religion
-followed the shamanistic (focused on the propitiation of nature spirits) beliefs of his ancestor
-all religions were tolerated in his empire.
Mongol - Trade throughout Empire
-transmitted new foods, inventions, and ideas across conquered lands
-did much to lay the foundations for more human interaction on a global scale, extending and
intensifying the world network that had been building since the classical age.
-actively promoted the growth of trade and travelers by protecting the caravans that made their way across the ancient Asian silk routes and by establishing rest stations for weary
merchants and fortified outposts for those harassed by bandits
-Secure trade routes made for prosperous merchants and wealthy, cosmopolitan cities and facilitated the spread of foods, inventions and technological and agricultural techniques
Mongol - Social Pyramid
-before Genghis Khan, when threatened by external enemies or in preparation for raids on other nomads or invasions of sedentary areas, clans and tribes could be combined in great Confederations
-At all organizational levels leaders were elected by the free males of the group. The elected leaders normally exhibited the qualities and skills that were essential to survival in the steppe environment where rash action or timid hesitation could lead to the
destruction of a leader's kinsmen and dependents.
-Courage in battle, usually evidenced from youth by bravery in the hunt,
and the capacity to forge alliances and attract dependents were vital
Mongol - Status of Women
-Though women exercised considerable influence within the family and had the right to be heard in tribal councils, males dominated positions of leadership.
-Mongol women in particular remained aloof from Chinese culture. Mongol women
refused to adopt the practice of foot-binding; they retained their rights to property and
control within the household and the capacity to move freely about town and
-great-grandfather, Kabul Khan, led a Mongol alliance that had won glory by defeating an army sent against them by the Qin kingdom of north China.
-named Temujin, was born in the 1170s
-Temujin's father was poisoned by the agents of a rival nomadic group
-Temujin joined the camp of a more powerful Mongol chieftain, who had once been aided by Temujin's father.
-Temujin's growing reputation as a warrior and military commander soon won him allies and clan chiefs eager to attach themselves to a leader with a promising future.
-Within a decade, the youthful Temujin had defeated his Mongol rivals and routed the forces sent to crush him by the Tartars and other nomadic peoples.
-In 1206, at a kuriltai, or meeting of all of the Mongol chieftains, Temujin -renamed Chinggis Khan -was elected the khaghan, or supreme ruler, of the Mongol tribes.
-United under a strong leader, the Mongols prepared to launch a massive assault on an
-surrounded himself with Chinese advisors, some Buddhist, others Daoist or Confucian. -built capital at Tatu in the north (present-day Beijing) was built on the site occupied by
-introduced Chinese rituals and classical music into his own court.
-did not reestablish the civil service exams, which had been discontinued by the Qin rulers, thus was determined to preserve Mongol separateness and to keep the scholar-gentry from gaining too much power
-adopted a Chinese life-style, was anxious to follow Chinese precedents, and became a major patron of the arts and a promoter of Chinese culture in general.
-Kubilai promulgated many laws to preserve the distinction between Mongol
and Chinese. He forbade Chinese scholars to learn the Mongol script, which was
used for records and correspondence at the upper levels of the imperial
government. Mongols were forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese, and only women
from nomadic families were selected for the imperial harem. Even friendships
between the two peoples were discouraged. Mongol religious ceremonies and
customs were retained, and a tent encampment in the traditional Mongol style
was set up in the imperial city, even though Kubilai usually resided in a
Chinese-style palace. Kubilai and his successors continued to enjoy key Mongol
pastimes such as the hunt, and Mongol military forces remained separate from
-He established the Yuan dynasty and united China for the first time in 300 years.
Son of first emperor of Ming dynasty which took control from Mongols. Sponsored a series of ambitious projects including lengthening and widening the Grand Canal and building the Forbidden City. Sent Zheng He and an armada of ships on 6 voyages to the west.
Muslim Eunuch who gained the favor and trust of Emperor Yongle and was made the admiral of the armada he sent out west.
Ottoman and the Mughal Empires-Similarities
-strong military organization
-Ottoman's allowed Jews and Christians to practice own religions while Akbar of the Mughal's were tolerant of other religions but Aurangzeb was intolerant of other religions
-both used gunpowder
-both had a centralized government with an absolute ruler with religious and political authority
-both practiced slavery
Ottoman and the Mughal Empires-Differences
-Ottomans sought to spread Islam through conquests
-Mughal empire consisted of a Muslim minority which controlled a Hindu majority while Ottoman empire consisted of many different peoples and religions
-Ottoman empire lasted until WWI while Mughal empire was conquered by British
Agriculture in Ancient Americas - Aztecs
-Used fertilizers and irrigation
-created plots on lake bed (Chinampa farming)
-constructed a dike to separate fresh water and salt water
-cultivation of maize
Agriculture in Ancient Americas - Incas
-Used fertilizers and irrigation
-used terrace farming
-llamas and alpacas domesticated for pack animals and wool and meat
-cultivation of maize