What is the time period of the Middle Ages?
Who were the successors of the Roman Empire?
Germanic kingdom (Visigoths and Ostrogoths) Nomadic empire
How was the rule in Europe during the Middle Ages?
Decentralized rule
Explain how the Franks ruled in Europe during the Middle Ages
-Focused on agriculture -Shifted center of empire from Italy to northern lands of France and Low Countries -Decentralized political structure
Describe the rule of Clovis and his dance on theological matters
-Ended Roman authority in Gaul and ruled over Franks -Clovis and army converted from polytheism to Roman Christianity
How did Clovis's conversion to Christianity affect his rule?
-Gained support from western Christian church and Christian population -Alliance with Roman church gave political strength -Became powerful Germanic people
What happened after the death of Clovis?
Charles Martel founded Carolingian Dynasty
What was the effect of the Carolingian Dynasty?
Battle of Tours (732)- Defeated Muslim army from Spain and stopped Muslim expansion in Spain
Describe the rule of Charlemagne
-Returned centralized imperial rule -Kept good relations with Byzantines and Abbasids to avoid becoming enemies -Expanded territories (Conquered France, Belgium, Netherlands, SW Germany, NE Spain, Bavaria, Italy)
How did he maintain his authority?
-Travelled through realm to maintain authority; Not enough money to run extensive bureaucracy or administration to enforce policies -Relied on counts for political, military, and legal authority in local territories
Why did Charlemagne refuse title as emperor and until what point?
-Did not want to be called emperor because title would pose challenge to Byzantine authority, who considered themselves successors of Roman empire -Pope Leo 3 coronated Charlemagne as surprise
Why did the Pope coronate Charlemagne?
-Gave title to make Roman Catholic Church more powerful -Pope has ability to give title means that Pope has greater power than emperor (Charlemagne)
What happened to the Carolingian Empire after the death of Charlemagne?
-Louis the Pious took over -Loss control of counts and local authorities -Established own power bases -Empire divided into 3 portions -End of Carolingian empire
What is feudalism?
Political system in which land is exchanged for protection
What is the economic system of feudalism?
Social structure of feudalism?
1. King (no real power; only figurehead) 2. Lords (receive a fief from the king) 3. Vassals (lesser lords) 4. Knights (warrior class) 5. Serfs (provided free labor)
How were the knights and serfs related?
Knights provided serfs protection; serfs provide knights with food and labor
Explain the importance of cities in feudalism
-Cities no longer important -Importance of land
What showed power in feudalism?
Land associated wit power and wealth
What was a trade organization during the Late Middle Ages?
Hanseatic League
Briefly describe the Nara and Heian Periods in Japan
Attempted to copy Chinese systems- unsuccessful
Briefly describe Medieval Japan
Decentralized political order Lords w/authority in local regions Valued military talent and discipline Samurai=warrior (similar to knights in Europe)
What was the reason for emergence of feudalism in Europe?
To escape warfare and fighting; Need for protection following collapse of Roman empire
What was the reason for emergence of feudalism in Japan?
Feudalism emerges from tax system flaw: Wealth landowners were exempt from taxes, peasants sold land to nobles and nobles gained more land, nobles hired samurai to protect their land
What was the code of conduct that knights had to follow in feudal Europe? In Japan?
Chivalry- Europe Bushido- Japan
What was the unifying force during feudalism in Europe?
Papal leadership of the Roman Catholic Church