Relating or belonging to the Middle Ages.
Byzantine Empire
A continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395 CE. Its capital city was Constantinople, originally known as Byzantium.
Justinian's Code
A collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
Great Schism of 1054
The medieval division of Chalcedonian Christianity into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became commonly known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively.
Roman Catholic Church
The Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy.
The office or authority of the pope.
Asceticism as a form of religious life; usually conducted in a community under a common rule and characterized by celibacy and poverty and obedience.
Eastern Orthodox Church
The body of modern churches, including among others the Greek and Russian Orthodox, that is derived from the church of the Byzantine Empire, adheres to the Byzantine rite, and acknowledges the honorary primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople.
The King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier.
Feudal System
The social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century; vassals were protected by lords who they had to serve in war.
An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
A large country house with lands; the principal house of a landed estate.
A hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan.
Kamakura Shogunate
A military dictatorship in Japan headed by the shoguns from 1185 CE to 1333 CE. It was based in Kamakura.
A member of a powerful family in Japan who exercised power as regents in the name of the emperor in 858 CE -1160 CE.
One of the great lords who were vassals of the shogun.
a member of a powerful military caste in feudal Japan, especially a member of the class of military retainers of the daimyo.
The lowest peasant category. Made up of people who were essentially household servants with no land rights.
A Japanese religion dating from the early 8th century and incorporating the worship of ancestors and nature spirits and a belief in sacred power (kami) in both animate and inanimate things. It was the state religion of Japan until 1945.
Zen Buddhism
A Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism emphasizing the value of meditation and intuition.