stateless societies
African societies organized around kinship or other forms or obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
the Arabic term for western north Africa
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-saharan Africa
Sundiata (sunjata)
the "Lion Prince"; a member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; died about 1260
professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali empire
Ibn Batua (b. 1304)
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
port city of Mali; located just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger Rivers population of 50m000; contained a library and a university
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Nigher Valley; formed an independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sumi Ai (1464-1492)?
people of northern Nigeria; formed states following the demise of Songhay Empire that combined Muslim & Pagan traditions
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century
Islamic law; defined among other things the patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance
the study of population
demographic transition
shift to low birthrate, low infant death rate, stable population; first emerged in western Europe and U.S. in late 19th century
Arabic term for the east African coast
powerful city-state (in present day Nigeria) which came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free of European influence; important comm. and political entity until 19th century
kingdom, based on agriculture, formed on lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital @ Mbanza Kongo, ruled by hereditary monarchy
Great Zimbabwe
Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between Zambezi adn Limpopo rivers, developed after 9th century, featured royal courts, built of stone; created centralized state by 15th century; king took title of Mwene Mutapa