lateen sail
triangular sail developed by Arab or Indian merchants which was eventually adopted by European ship owners to improve the maneuverability of their ships. It could catch crosswinds and be used to drive a ship along its chosen course. The captains of caravels and galleons used this type of sail in conjunction with several other kinds of sails to cross the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
navigational instrument that helped determine latitude by using the position of the sun
volta do mar
route used by Portuguese and Spanish sea captains which literally means "return through the sea". although indirect, this route proved to be safer and more reliable way of traveling from the Canary Islands to Portugal in the 15th century. this technique of sailing around contrary winds was later used by explorers in many other parts of the world.
Prince Henry "the Navigator"
members of the royal family of Portugal in the 15th century who sponsored a series of voyages along the west coast of Africa. these journeys eventually led to the success of Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama who rounded the southern tip of Africa in the late 1400s.
Sao Jorge de Mina
location of fortified Portuguese trading posts in modern Ghana. the Portuguese exchanged horses, leather, textiles, and metal wares for gold & slaves.
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488. bad weather and a restless crew forced him to turn back before he visited any ports in the Indian Ocean.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa and made his way to India where he traded for a cargo of pepper and cinnamon. after a difficult return voyage he sold these goods in Portugal at a tremendous profit. as a result of his voyage, the Portuguese government sponsored several other expeditions into the Indian Ocean.
Cristoforo Colombo
Original name for famous explorer whose voyages to the west from Spain in the late 1400s led to the establishment of permanent contact between the Americas and Europe. although his voyages did not reach his desired destination in Asia, the exchange of animals, plants, people, and diseases that resulted from his voyages has been named for him. although he was not the first person to "discover the Americas" his voyage in 1492 initiated a series of changes that dramatically changed many societies in the Americas, Africa and Europe.
Martin Behaim
German cartographer who is believed to have created the earliest surviving globe in 1492
Ferdinand Magellan
Spanish explorer who sailed across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (1519 - 1521) before dying in the Philippines. A strait south of South America (near Cape Horn) was named for him. The Spanish claimed the Philippines and some other islands in the Pacific partly as a result of his voyage. Members of his crew completed the return journey to Spain by crossing the Indian Ocean and sailing around Africa. Those who completed the whole journey were the first to circumnavigate the world.
northwest passage
many European explorers traveled in search of a way to sail north of Canada in order to travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific. this route proved to be too difficult to complete before the twentieth century due to the extreme weather in the northern Canada region. European explorers hoped to find a quicker path to East Asia than sailing around Africa or sailing south of South America
Francis Drake
British sea captain who raided Spanish ships and ports as privateer and scouted the west coast of North America in conjunction with his attacks on Spanish interests in Latin America
James Cook
British explorer who charted much of the Pacific Ocean as the result of a series of voyages between 1768 and 1780. his experience in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) did not end well for him.
Alfonso d'Alberquerque
Commander of Portuguese fleet in the Indian Ocean between 1508 and 1511. He was successful in taking over the ports of Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka as part of his campaign to control trade in the Indian Ocean basin. This Portuguese dominance in the region was soon challenged by English and Dutch sailors.
Port in India that became the official capital of Portuguese colonies in Asia from the 1500s until the 1900s.
Important port in the East Indies (today's Indonesia) that fell to Portuguese forces in 1511 and later to Dutch control in 1641.
join-stock company
Investment organizations that developed in some European countries to support exploration, conquest, and colonization of other parts of the world. their ability to raise capital was based on their willingness to take the money of many small investors and then return a profit to those investors. the two most prominent examples of this type of organization are the British East India company and the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) which is also known as the Dutch East India Company. Both of these became bery profitable and helped to extend the influence of their home countries.
Lopez de Legazpi
Commander of expedition that started the Spanish conquest of the Philippines starting in 1565. he named these islands after King Philip II of Spain. He was able to bring the coastal regions of the central and northern islands under Spanish control by 1575.
This is a southern island of the Philippines which did not come under Spanish control due to the resistance of a large Islamic community there.
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Dutch merchant and mariner who founded Batavia on island of Java in 1619 as a trade center for the VOC. his goal was to create a Dutch monopoly over spice production and trade in the East Indies. By the 1700s, Batavia did indeed control a significant portion of the spice trade in the Indian Ocean.
Seven Years War
Global conflict between British and French interests that involved claims in India, Canada, and the Caribbean region. The hostilities lasted from 1756 to 1763 and were ended by the Treaty of Paris which awarded Canadian territory to the British. In North America this conflict was known as the French and Indian War.
Columbian Exchange
This was the transfer of crops, animals, disease, and people between the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe. biological-smallpox, plague, crops-wheat, coffee, sugar cane, cotton, potatoes, maize, manioc Euro animals-horses, cows, pigs, chickens
the second most deadly epidemic disease after the bubonic plague. it devastated the Native American population after it was introduced by Europeans in the late 1400s.
African slave trade
European merchants traded firearms and other goods for West African slaves. The traded these slaves in the Americas for rum or tobacco. this exchange lasted from the 1500s to the 1800s and was largely carried out by the english and the dutch.
manila galleons
spanish ships that carried goods between Latin America and the Philippines from 1565 into the 1700s. As a result silver from South America made its way to china while Chinese goods such as silk or porcelain became more available in Latin America and Spain
Ibn Battuta
Morrocan legal scholar who served as a qadi (judge) or advisor for Islamic rulers in India, East Africa, Mali, and the Maldive Islands. He labored to make the observation of Islamic practices consistent across the dar al-Islam.
fortefied inns that were built along trade routes in central and western Asia in the twelfth century to provide food, lodging, and protection for merchants traveling with camels, donkeys, and horses
Marco Polo
venetian merchant who traveled to China in 1271 at the age of 17. served kubilai khan on various diplomatic missions and traded through much of china. after seventeen years in china, he returned to italy on the sea route by way of sumatra, ceylon, india, and arabia
Rabban Sauma
Nestorian Christian priest who was born in Mongol capital of Khanbaliq. The ilkhan of Persia sent him to Europe to enlist aid for the Mongol plans to attack Islamic lands in Western Asia. He met with kings of England and France, as well as the Pope. He didn't attract European support for the Mongol attack.
mystics who served as missionaries in the spread Islam. they emphasized piety and devotion to Allah more than a strict understanding of Islam and its laws. some of these tolerated other gods as manifestations of Allah. because they were flexible they were successful in starting the conversion process in places like India, southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.
John of Montecorvino
respected Roman Catholic missionary in China. He translated the New Testament into Turkish in hopes that this would encourage Mongols to convert to Christianity. He also built several churches in China. In spite of his efforts, few Mongols or Chinese converted.
although this plant originated in India, Muslims cultivated it in SW asia. muslims introduced it to northern Africa and the Mediterranean world through trade. after the twelfth century the popularity of crystallized sugar helped drive the success of its cultivation and prompted an increase in the demand for slaves to plant and harvest this plant.
weapon which was first developed in Tang China. Mongol armies learned of its qualities when they invaded China in the 1200s. Chinggis Khan employed artillery unit in his campaigns beyond China. by 1258 it had reached Europe. By the early 14th century cannons were in use from Europe to China effectively ending the protection earlier afforded by walls and castles.
bubonic plague
pandemic of the 1300s that is believed to have begun in Yunnan region of Southwest China.It was spread by rodents and fleas along the trade routes from asia to europe and north africa. outbreaks of this disease continued in europe until the last 1600s.
He led a rebellion in China which toppled the Yuan dynasty in 1368. He established the Ming dynasty and worked to eradicate all Mongol influences in Chinese culture. He embraced Confucian beliefs and education in order to restore the traditional Chinese bureaucratic system.
a special class of powerful officials sent out as emissaries of China's central government to ensure that local officials were obeying imperial law. these officials were created during the Ming dynasty to enhance the power of their government. After the Ming dynasty fell, the Qing dynasty adopted this system of administration for their government as well.
Yongle Encyclopedia
the second Ming emperor organized the preparation of a vast collection of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature in an effort to preserve and glorify Chinese culture. This work eventually contained 23,000 manuscript rolls, each equivalent to a medium size book.
Louis XI
king of France who reigned from 1461 to 1483. He created a standing army of about 15000 soldiers that helped him subdue unruly nobles seeking to challenge his authority.
the reconquest of Spain by Christian forces started in 1060 CE and finally completed in 1492. in their efforts to drive Islamic rulers from Iberia, Christian rulers waged a series of campaigns against the caliphate of cordoba. Soldiers from England and France helped the Spanish Christians in this crusade. It was completed under the leadership of Ferdinand and Isabella when the last Islamic state on the peninsula (Granada) fell in 1492.
rebirth of interest in classical Greek and Roman artistic and intellectual creativity. This rebirth began in Italy and was marked by the contributions of artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. The ideas and attitudes of this movement spread to the other countries of Western Europe in the period from the 14th- 16th centuries.
Renaissance scholars who studied the classical works of ancient Greece and Rome. Their studies convinced them that it was possible to be virtuous and moral within a normal life.
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist who translated and published the first edition of the Greek New Testament and a revised Latin translation as well
Zheng He
Chiense admiral and eunuch who led seven large naval expeditions to the Indian Ocean between 1405 and 1433. His destinations included southeast Asia, Ceylon, India, the Persian Gulf, Arabia, and East Africa. His mission was to assert Chinese control of trade routes and establish a healthy respect for the Ming government in other parts of Asia
Atzec capital on Lake Texaco. this city boasted canals, a magnificent palace, an aviary, and many markets and temples. At its height before Spanish conquest, it had an estimated population of 200,000 inhabitants. Mexico City was built on the site of this city by Spanish colonizers
migrated from NW mexico to central mexico where their empire became dominant between 950 and 1150 CE. Their use of irrigation helped them develop crops of maize, beans, peppers, tomatoes, chiles, and cotton. Tula was their capital city, which is estimated to have had as many as 60,000 inhabitants at its height.
migrants from NW Mexico who came to be known as Aztecs when they developed a large empire in the 15th century. They arrived in Central Mexico in the 1300s and established their capital at Tenochtitlan around 1345. By the mid 1400s, their empire had over 20 million inhabitants
15th century leader of Mexica who led conquests in southern Mexico. Alater leader of the Mexica by the same name was captured and murdered by the Spanish forces under Cortez in 1520
Bernal Diaz del Castillo
Spanish soldier who wrote about the wonders of Tenochtitlan in the early 1500s
style of agriculture used by the Mexica in which fertile muck from lake bottoms was dredged up and built up into small plots. Some of these plots were created on top of Lake Texcoco using reed mats that could buoy the plants and soil on top of the water.
Atzec war god. The Mexica believed that they needed to make many human sacrifices to him in order to assure the existence of their society. The Aztecs reportedly sacrificed 80,000 people to this god in 1487 as a sign of their devotion to him after expanding his temple
Agricultural people who lived in the Southwestern region of North America. They used rivers for irrigation of maize crops and built stone and adobe buildings
five tribes that made up the Iroquois Alliance developed from earlier Owasco society. They built wooden palisades to defend their villages. Women were in charge of villages and longhouses. Men were responsible for hunting and warfare.
Site of the largest surviving mound construction. It was built in the interior of North America (modern day Illinois). The Native Americans who lived here built more than 100 other smaller mounds within a few miles of the large mound. Archaeologists estimate that as many as 38000 people may have lived in the vicinity of these mounds.
kingdom that developed in the 10th century CE along the Peruvian coast. The people of this kingdom tapped in Andes water for the irrigation of maize and sweet potatoes. Chanchan was the capital city which may have had a population as high as 100,000
built an empire in South America that reached more than 2,500 miles (from modern-day Quito to Santiago). They ruled as military and administrative elite although they were outnumbered by their subjects. Their capital at Cuzco was conntected to the various regions of the empire by a vast series of roads and runners.
ruler of the INcas whose military conquests expanded Inca control from Lake Titicaca to highlands and Chimu. his reign extended from 1438 to 1471
Since the Incas did not develop any script, their bureaucrats created this mnemonic aid to keep a record of taxes, population, labor services, and government property. These devices consisted of small cords of various lengths and colors with a variety of knots. the smaller cords were all attached to larger cords for transport and organization
inca capital that had about 100,000 residents at the empires height in the late 15th century CE. Captiives from different parts of the empire were forced to live here to give the rulers leverage in controlling different parts of the empire
Inca sun god and primary deity. The incas showed their devotion to him through the support of thousands of priests and attendants
Torres Strait
body of water that separates Australia from New Guniea. it was the barrier that prevented the spread of an agricultural economy from New guniea to the Aborigines of Australia
people who settled on many of the islands of the Pacific OCean. their ability as explorers and colonizers is demonstrated by their societies that developed from New Zealand to Easter Island
food plant cultivated by Polynesians. the tubers are edible and are the source for Polynesian poi
Polynesian ceremonial precinct and temple structure. they ofter had several terraced floors with a rock or coral wall designation the boundaries of the holy space. the largest of these structures was found in Tahiti
This was the name given to the hominid skeleton discovered at Hadar, Ethiopia in 1974. Archaeologists have dated this particular Australopithecus to 3.5 million years ago.
These were evolution's pre-humans know through fragmentary fossil evidence discovered in East Africa. Archaeologists believe that some of these species may have been the ancestors of modern humans.
Homo Sapiens
This i the name of our species (modern humans). Many archaeologists believe our species first appeared around 40,000 years ago.
This is the formal name for the Old Stone Age which many archaeologists date from 3.5 million to about 12,000 years BP (Before Present).
This was a Paleolithic human subspecies archaeologists believe first appeared around 200,000 years ago. Their careful burial ritual indicate similarity to modern humans.
This is a cave site in southern France where archaeologists believe early humans created many paintings from 34,000 to 12,000 years ago.
This is the formal name for the New Stone Age which many archaeologists date from 8,000 - 6,000 BP. It is believed that during this time humans began the transition to agriculture.
Agricultural transition
This is the term for a change that humans first experienced during the Neolithic period. This change from a nomadic life of hunting and gathering to a more settled life of raising crops continued to take place in many parts of the world long after the original Neolithic Revolution is believed to have taken place in the Middle East.
Agriculture allowed some people to concentrate their efforts in areas no related to getting food. Scribes, doctors, builders, etc.
This refers to an important aspect of early agricultural development in the Neolithic period when animals were kept for food: sheep, goats, pigs, oxen, chickens.
This is a term used to describe the region in present day Iraq. It specifically refers to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
This is the name given to a region in southern Mesopotamia where the earliest writing was developed.
Epic of Gilgamesh
IT was one of the first stories to be written down in ancient Sumeria and describes a Sumerian prince who sought the secret to everlasting life.
Sumerian and Babylonian writing based on wedge shaped symbols.
Empire which dominated Mesopotamia untila about 1600 BCE
Babylonian King who is most famous for creating a written law code
This empire dominated Mesopotamia after Babylonia ( 1300 - 612 BCE) Its cities of Assur and Ninevah housed some of the world's earliest libraries.
Type of government in which a city took control of territory close to the city. Ancient Sumer was organized in this way until it was conquered by Sargon.
Led Jews out of captivity in Egypt. His story is found in Exodus of the Old Testament and in the Torah.
Seafaring people of area that is today called Lebanon. They created a phonetic alphabet, expanded overseas trade and established colonies in sicily, N Africa, and Spain.
Refers to the large savanna and grassland region in Africa that serves as the transition zone between the Sahara Desert in the north and the rain forests of Centra Africa.
Region south of Egypt where the Kingdom of Kush developed
First pharaoh to unite upper and lower Egypt. He is also called Narmer by some archaeologists.
Pharaoh of Egypt who built the largest pyramid. He is also called Cheops by some archaeologists
Semitic people of SW Asia who conquered and dominated Egypt for more than 100 years (1674-1550 BCE). Their use of horses, chariots, and bronze weapons gave the significant advantages over their Egyptian adversaries.
Originally a picture based writing that appeared in Egypt at least by 3200 BCE. It evolved to include representing sounds and ideas.
Pharaoh who unsuccessfully promoted monotheistic worship of the single god Aten (1353 - 1355 BCE)
Kingdom south of Egypt on the Nile that conquered and ruled Egypt from 750 to 664 BCE. Developed a form of alphabet that has not been deciphered yet.
People of West Africa who migrated South and east from 1000 BCE - 1000 CE.
Phoenician colony that became the center of as trade empire that included much of what is today Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Spain.
Indigenous people of India whose early cities demonstrated rigid planning and modern attitudes about sanitation.
Dravidian city in the Indus River valley. Its streets were laid out in a grid pattern with intersections set up to have cross streets at 90 degree angles.
Indo-Europeans who migrated to India 1500 BCE, dominated Indus and Ganges valleys by 1000 BCE.
Written language for sacred texts / Written language for everyday communication
The Vedas
Sacred texts that served as some of the earliest written texts for the Hindu beliefs.
System of social classes that developed in India after the Aryan migration. Brahmins - priests, non Aryans were in lower castes or "outcasts".
Universal soul, the ultimate destination of all souls
Sacred texts of Hindu belief that taught that all person are a part of Brahman
Hindu belief that identities the nature of force generated by each action It determines the path of reincarnation
Hindu concept of unity with Brahman that is achieved through reincarnation. This event ends a soul's cycle of rebirths.
Literally means "virtuous woman." In some parts of India a wife is expected to join her deceased husband on his funeral fire.
Early Chinese dynasty that was devoted to flood control, founded by Yu 2200 BCE
Dynasty whose kingdom in China followed that of the Xia kings (1766 - 1122 BCE). These rulers made use of bronze weapons, chariots, writing, city walls to expand their power and control of the common people.
Dynasty that ruled China from 1122 - 256 BCE. Their early success was based on effective diplomatic skills and a strong army.
Period of Warring States
403 - 221 BCE, last centuries of Zhou when the introduction of iron metallurgy encouraged revolts and civil war.
Mandate of Heaven
Zhou concept: Heavenly powers grant right to govern to "son of heaven" as long as the ruler maintains honer and justice.
Society in which families look to the oldest male as the authority and decision maker.
Oracle Bones
Used by fortune tellers who inscribed questions into tortoise shell, exposed the inscribed shells to extreme heat, and waited for it to crack to read fortune.
The Book of Songs
Anthology of Chinese poetry from the Zhou period.
Philosopher who emphasized the need for virtuous behavior and traditional social order.
River in southern China also known as the Chang Jiang. Rice first cultivated here 7000 BCE.
"capital city" of the mongol empire in the 13th century
mongol tents
religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers
title taken by some rulers of nomadic confederations among the turks and mongols
title conferred on various turkish leaders by abbasid caliphs. the person who bore this title was recognized as the primary military champion of the islamic world
saljuq turks defeated the byzantine forces and in 1071 CE and took control of anatolia soon thereafter
mahmud of ghanzi
he was the leader of the turkish people in afganistan from 997-1030 CE
unified the mongols and led them on successful campaigns in central asia and china
khubilai khan
grandson of chinggis khan who ruled china as the most successful emperor of the yuan dynasty
Marco Polo
venetian merchant who visited the yuan court during the region of khubilai khan. the account of his travels remained the primary source of information about the far east for europeans until the 19th century
japanese name given to the typhoons which destroyed khubilai khans forces en route to invade japan in 1274 and 1281
Ilkhan ghazan
mongol leader in persia whose conversion to islam in 1295 ended mongol plans to destroy all islamic power in the middle east
self made turk conqueror who viewed chinggis khans success as a model for his own conquests. he devoted many resources to the construction of a magnificent capital for his empire at smarkand
leader of small turkish band in anatolia whose success in taking territory from the declining byzantine empire allowed him to challenge the saljuq leadership of the turks and ultimately led to his founding of the ottoman empire
mehmed II
ottoman sultan who is most famous for his conquest of constantinople in 1453
founder of the mali empire
professional singers and storytellers in Africa
people whose gradual migration from west africa to southern and eastern africa spread agriculture and iron metallurgy to the areas where they settled
"stateless societies"
as a result of the bantu migrations many areas of africa developed a segmented structure of political power shared by family and kinship groups. Such organiation did not depend on a hierarchy of government officials nor did it require a bureaucratic apparatus to operate
prosperous kingdom that arose in the congo river basin
capital of the kingdom of ghana
a camel caravan center from the eleventh century located on the fringe of the sahara
mansa musa
grand nephew of sundial who ruled the mali empire at its height
arabic term meaning "coasters: referring to those who engaged in trade along the east african coast from mogadishu to sofala. this term also refers to the bantu languages in east africa
city-state of east african coast founded around 800 CE
great zimbabwe
city in southern central africa that first developed in the early 1200s
age grades
groups of people that included all individuals within a given community born within a few years of one another. members of each age-group would perform tasks appropriate for their development
modern ethiopia, adopted christianity
religious specialists in many african societies who were usually men but sometimes women, believed to have special powers to meditate between humans and supernatural beings
ibn battuta
moroccan traveler and islamic scholar whose journeys in africa europe and asia were largely intended to help bring about more consistent observation of is laic practices throughout the dar al-islam
kingdom in west africa that first developed in the 4th or 5th century CE
west african empire from 1200s to 1400s that fostered a larger scale of trade than the earlier kingdom of ghana
holy roman empire
created and existed primarily in germany from 962 to 1806. it did not include rome, but was thought to be a possible successor to the ancient roman empire as a political power
otto of saxony
king in northern germany whose defense of the church prompted pope john XII to proclaim him emperor
hugh capet
after last of carolingian monarchs died in 987 CE the lords of france elected this minor noble as king
frederick barbarossa
holy roman emperor from 1152-1190 who sought to integrate the northern italian region of lombardy into his empire. joined the 3rd crusade and was drowned in anatolia
william of normandy
led the last successful invasion of england in 1066. "william the conqueror"
horse collars
agricultural innovation that enabled horses to pull heavy plows
hanseatic league
northern european trade network that included cities from novgorod to london
eleanor of aquitaine
ruler of an important kingdom within france from 1122-1204
trade organizations set up by merchants, artisans, and craftsmen to regulate the production and sale of goods in european towns
St. Thomas Aquinas
theologian who worked to combine the values of christianity with the logical rigor of greek philosophy
in roman catholic belief, holy rituals that bring spiritual blessings on those who observe these as practices (baptism, confirmation, matrimony,last rights, eucharist, penance and ordination_
Leirf Ericsson
viking explorer who established a viking settlement in modern day newfoundland
teutonic knights
a military and religious order that was devoted to the struggle against muslims and pagans
the reconquest of spain by christian forces started in 1060 CE and finally completed in 1492
urban II
pope who launched the crusades in 1095
salah al-Din
sultan of egypt and islamic leader who recaptured jerusalem 1187 from christian forces