A group of Indo-European nomadic herders who are believed by many scholars to have migrated to the Indian subcontinent.
one of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; the priestly class (in charge of the religious ceremonies that were so important in Indian society)
the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Lived in India before the Aryans took over. Then mixed, mingled, interacted, and intermarried with Aryans.
Early brilliant Indian society centered around Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Civilization that developed along the Indus River (Present Day Pakistan), Controlled larges areas of land on both sides of the Indus River, Largest two settlements were Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, Known for City planning, sewer systems, indoor plumbing, and fortresses around their cities
A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia. People from around the the Black Sea and the Caspian sea; Between 2500 and 2000 BC, they migrated all over Eurasia; known as Hittites or Aryans, became ancestors of Romans and Greeks
Indus River
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea.
(Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system., One of the first settlements in India
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
a ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
Vedas/Vedic Religion
Vedas= "books of Knowledge", "Wisdom", early collections of prayers and hymns that provide information about the indo-european aryans who migrated into India around 1500 BCE; Rig veda is the most important collection
Book of Songs
Ancient Chinese (Zhou) classic, also known as the Book of Poetry, and the Book of Odes. Collection of verses on light and serious themes. 311 poems complied and edited after 600 BCE. Some poems reflect conditions of the early Zhou dynasty, some have political implications because they recorded the illustrious deeds of heroic figures and ancient sage-kings, and others were hymns sung at ritual observances. Also about life, love, family, nature, daily life.
Bronze Foundaries
During the Xia and Shang dynasties, where the government encouraged bronze metallurgy and to monopolize the bronze industry.
Horse Drawn Chariots
were used by the Aryans to conquer the Indus valley civilization
Huang He Valley
earliest Chinese settlement (Yellow River Valley: loess); Xia, Shang, Zhou Kingdoms; concept of Mandate of Heaven and the Dynastic Cycle; developed pictographs and used oracle bones
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Oracle Bones
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
Steppe Nomads
herders from central Asia, that worked on the steppe lands; often invaded rich countries: small, autonomous tribes, raid other tribes (steal goods, not kill people); wanted silk, wine, and grain from Chinese; raid China which leads to China developing cavalry by trading horses with nomads; develop outer frontier strategy
Veneration of Ancestors
Family ancestors could bring good or evil fortune to the living members of the family. Chinese had great respect for their ancestors. Offered sacrifices at graves. Head of family in charge of rites to honor spirits. Buried material goods with their dead.
Warring States
For two hundred years a fight broke out between the Local Rulers and Zhou Kings. This was called The period of the___
Yangzi River
River that cuts through central China and flows from the mountains of Tibet to Pacific Ocean
Yellow River
Also known as the Huang-He river. The second longest river in China and the sixth longest in the world. The majority of ancient Chinese civilizations originated in the Yellow River Valley.
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
This early civilization included Mexico and Central America and it was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.
A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E..
the most important Maya political center between the 4th-9th centuries. It was a city that had temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings.
Chichen Itza
A large small city Mayan kingdom. They accoustomed captives into their own society. Organzied an empire that brought political stability to northen Yucatan, who it lost its empire to.
Popol Vuh
the most famous of the Maya books that recounts the Highland Maya's version of the story of creation.
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties
Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
islands of central and South Pacific (Indonesia and Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia)
New Guinea
Turned to agriculture cultivated root crops, kept pigs and chickens, was connected to Australia until about 10,000 years ago
By or from the Andes (Andes mountains.)