Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
one of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights and collective rights of all of the estates as one. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, these rights are universal: they are supposed to be valid in all times and places, pertaining to human nature itself.
Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
Written by Olympe de Gouge, this declared that women should have the same rights as were given to men in the new constitution.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Published in 1792 - outlining Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen and adding woman's rights too. Emphasized importance of the equality of education for women. But revolutionaries in France still dominated by men and only a very few of these (e.g. Condorcet) were supportive of women's desires for equal rights.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Marie Gouze/Olympe de Gauges
wrote the declaration of rights of women and the female citizen
Seneca Falls Conference
the first major meeting to discuss equal rights for women in the US, wrote Declaration of Sentiments-drafted after the Declaration of Independence, laid out womens' demands. Reactions: some women felt empowered, others were very critical
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
the right to vote
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
American Revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
French Revolution
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Ancien Regime
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution)
Estates General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Third Estate
98% of the population made up of Bourgeoisie, San Cullotes, and the Peasent Farmers
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
a jail (literally, a French jail)
"Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity"
slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution (Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite)
Maximilien Robespierre
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles that severes the head from the body.
Coup d' etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves. Known for the first successful revolution to abolish slavery from slave revolts.
Island now known as Haiti; good for sugar producing; residents (slaves) heard about equality and the other enlightenment ideas and asked France for the same rights as those people living in France but did not receive them--civil war breaks out and many Frenchmen die--gains independence from France--becomes Nation of Haiti.
Toussaint L' Ouverture
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Maroon Societies
runaway slaves in the West Indies, Central America, South America, and North America, who formed independent settlements together., allowed the perpetuation of African culture.
Miguel de Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.
Mexican Independence
Creoles fearing loss of privileges joined together, led by Hidalgo to declare Mexican's independence in 1821. Hidalgo was overthrown in 1821 and Central America had independence from Mexico.
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
Jamaica Letter
Written by Simone Bolivar, in this letter he argues that liberty should come to Latin America but before true freedom can be experienced, there should be a period of transition in which a dictator should rule.
Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military successes of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations.
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Edmund Burke
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
Liberalism/Classic Liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
John Stuart Mill
English Philosopher, Benthamite, wrote "On Liberty", Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
Olaudah Equiano
(1745-1797) African who was sold into slavery and bought his way out-kidnapped as a boy (age 11) from his home he was sold into slavery and sold amongst slave traders many times-he served in the Seven Years' War as a captain's boy and was then sold to a slave trader where he went to the Caribbean-from there a white colonist bought him and he eventually bought his way out of slavery-he went to England to live and published a book about slavery and his experiences-his message was widespread and helped to inspire the abolition of slavery
a movement to end slavery
William Wilberforce
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
A country who's population share a common identity.
prejudice against Jews
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea;
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Italy Unification
ruled by austrians, mid 19th century, Count Camillo di Cavour wants to get the austrians out of Italy, does favors for alot of countries and gets more allies; picks a fight with Austria and northern Italy frees itself from Austria in 1860
Germany Unification
wanted to unify Austria and Prussia; fought the Austro-Prussian War; created Northern German Confederation 1867; then unified Southern Germany; wanted to unify to increase Nationalism; beginning of Second Reich in Germany
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Factory System
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
The development of industries for the machine production of goods.
the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology
Wealth of Nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Mass Production
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright.
Companies that sell shares of ownership, called stocks, to investors in order to raise money.
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Demographic Transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
Middle Class
a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
Working Class
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
Utopian Socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively (sacrificial socialism; voluntary socialism)
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Friedrich Engels
Another German communist who aided Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto; German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages (working class)
middle class
The Communist Manifesto
the book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
Trade Unions
Early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
Trans-Siberian Railroad
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Mexican-American War
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
U.S. Civil War
war fought between the North and South for four years (1862-1865) mainly on Southern soil; purpose was to bring Confederate states back to the Union; North was better equipped for war despite superior Southern military leadership. War fought over slavery.
Emancipation of Slaves
Slaves worked to obtain equal rights, 1834.
Canadian Dominion
Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces
Creole Elites
On South American continent made up of merchants, landowners, and professional people of Spanish descent. Europeans married African leaders and created this class.
independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
La Reforma
1855, Benito Juarez and other liberals open an era; offered hope to oppressed people of Mexico, revised the Mexican constitution to strip military power and end Church privileges; unleashed a civil war, but was still elected president in 1861
Porfirio Diaz
A dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants.
Emiliano Zapata
leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which lasted 10 years; 1910-1920; faught for farmers' rights; gathered army in southern Mexico and urged farmers to join; Liberation Army of the South
"tierra y libertad"
this is Zapata's idea for land reform, means land and liberty, he eventually becomes president
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
Indentured Laborers
laborers who in exchange for passage agreed to work in a colony for a number of years specified in a contract; Indians did this as a result of banning of Atlantic slave trade; replaced slaves in Caribbean, Africa, etc/; harshly treated
Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century
inhabitants of the area around Red River. They were of mixed blood-French and Scottish fur traders and natives
Bands of mounted rural workers in the region of the Rio de la Plata; aided local caudillos in splitting apart the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata after 1816.
Industrial Migrants
People that moved into industiralized areas for work, moving from area to area
Plantation Migrants
people that moved into rural areas to work in fields, moving from one to another