ancien régime
old order; system of government in pre-revoution France.
social classes used in France to classify people.
the middle class of France. effected third class.
deficit spending
the situation in which a government spends more money than it takes in.
Louis XVI
well-meaning but weak and indecisive. Not able to help economic crisis. Called in Estates-General due to the large amounts of revolts.
Jacques Necker
a financial expert as, an advisor for king Louis XVI.
Estates - General
legislative body made up of representatives of the three estates in pre-revolutionary France.
notebook used during the French Revolution to record *grievances*
Tennis Court Oath
famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the Third Estate in France.
fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789.
a dissenting group of people towards any action.
Marquis de Lafayette
the aristocratic "hero of two worlds" fought with George Washington in the American Revolution.
Olympe de Gouges
a journalist, demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female citizen.
person who flees his or her country for political reasons.
working-classman or woman who made the French Revolution more radical; called such because he or she wore long trousers instead of the fancy knee breeches that the upper class wore.
system of government in which officials are chosen by people.
members of a radical political club during the French Revolution.
the process or right to vote.
Maximlien Robespiere
a lawyer, politician, who rose to lead the Committee of Public Safety.
Reign of Terror
time period during the French Revolution from September 1793 to July 1794 when people in France were arrested for not supporting the revolution and many were executed.
used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands of people by dropping a large blade on ones head therefore beheading someone.
Napolean Bonaparte
a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy. First wife Josephine. First banished to Elba then later after the 100 days return of him later was banished again to St. Helena.
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
French port city; troops marched to a patriotic song as they marched from this city, the song eventually became the French National Anthem.
a ballot in which voters have a direct say on an issue.
Napoleonic Code
body of French Civil laws introduced in 1804; served as model for many nation' civil codes.
to add a territory to an existing state or country.
Continental system
blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports; ultimately successful.
guerrilla warfare
fighting carried on through hit and run tactics.
scorched-earth policy
military tactic in which soldiers destroy everything in their path to hurt the enemy.
to give up or step down from power.
Congress of Vienna
assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together; met from September 1814 to July 1815.
principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored.
Concert of Europe
a system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain met periodically to discuss any problems affecting peace in Europe; resulted from Post-Napoleon era Quadruple Alliance. P - Prussia E - England A - Austria R - Russia
Woman's Bread March
forced the King and Queen to sign the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
First Estate
made up of 1% of the population known as the Clergy. Most wealthy, 10% owned land. Paid no taxes known as a privilege. Ignored religious services. Rejected Enlightenment.
Second Estate
made up of 2% of the population known as the Nobility. Power depended on the title. Mostly landowners. Controlled government jobs: military, courts, and church. 20% owned land. Little money income and screwed if inflation occurred. Some had privilege of paying no taxes.
Third Estate
made up of 97% of the population which contained the rest of the population. Starvation occurred for most peasants. Enlightenment period accepted. 80% are peasants. Top 10% are middle class members. The last 10% are urban workers. No privileges and resented all privileges for others.
What was the slogan for the rioters of France?
Liberte, Egalite, and Fraternite or known as Liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 1789 created. all men are born and remain equal. All men should enjoy liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. Protected all citizens natural rights. Freedom of religion, taxes based on ability to pay, public offices open to all qualified.
A radical supporter of the French Revolution who used his newspaper to demand more blood; he was eventually murdered. Later depicted close to Jesus Christ.
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Feudal Dues
money peasants pay in order to live on their land (almost like rent).
Storming of Bastille
7/14/1789. One of the reasons to start the revolution.
Monarchy Beheading
signified the ending of a monarchy and the anger of the citizens.
Napoleon Loses in Britain
Napoleon loses due to a failed starvation plan by Napoleon known as the Continental System. Loses badly at the *Battle of Trafalger*. Instead of suffering decides to capture all France's ships.
Napoleon Loses in Spain
Napoleon loses due to the experience in *guerrilla warfare*. Also the major help of the British Navy and Army who assisted the Spanish in battle helped crush Napoleon.
Napoleon Loses in Russia
Napoleon loses due to soldiers experienced in *guerrilla warfare* and worst of all *scorched-earth policy* that weakened Napoleon's army slowly . Starvation began to become a possibility due to harsh weather conditions, low supplies, and no food. Napoleon barely survives but because of this he abdicates his power.
Napoleon Loses in Haiti
Napoleon loses due to rebellious slaves who desired to be freed led by Ouverture. Lost all sugar plantations. Losing Haiti results in selling U.S. land to Jefferson known as the Louisiana Purchase. Yellow fever.
Toussaint L' Ouverture
former slave who led Haitian rebellion against Napoleon. Victorious and set all slaves on island to be freed until he starts to control island.
Coup d' etat
a sudden overthrow of the government. After Robespierre was beheaded.
Who was able to vote?
White male landowners.