A religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. He united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.
Carolingian Renaissance
The first of three medieval renaissances, was a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire occurring from the late eighth century to the ninth century, taking inspiration from the Christian Roman Empire of the 4th century.
The dominant social system in medieval Europe.
The medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code.
The Crusades
Military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.
Pope Urban I
Bishop of Rome or pope from 222 to 23 May 230.
From Old Norse víkingr, were Germanic Norse seafarers, speaking the Old Norse language.
The capital city of the Roman/Byzantine empire.
Justinian I
Traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was a Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565.
Hagia Sophia
Former Christian patriarchal basilica, later an imperial mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Black Death
One of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346-53.
The religion of all Muslims
5 Pillars of Islam
Shahadah, Salah, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj
The "Bible" of all Muslims
Translates to God from Muslim
The God of all Muslims
Islam's holiest city
A building at the center of Islam's most sacred mosque, Al-Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred Muslim site in the world.
Muslim place of worship
A tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer.
The Holy month of fasting, introspection, and prayer
The pilgrimage to Mecca
The basic Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith.
3 Holiest Cities of Islam
Mecaa, Medina, Jerusalem
Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion.
Tang Dynasty
An imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Empress Wu
A Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as Empress and later, officially as Emperor of China (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty.
An ancient Chinese tradition of breaking a young girl's feet then wrapping it with cloth to heal incorrectly, because small feet were attractive.
Song Dynasty
An era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty.
Rice Growing
China is not flat, so they used terraces to plant rice.
Yuan Dynasty
Officially the Great Yuan, was the empire or ruling dynasty established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
A rider on horseback, especially a skilled one. Was what the Mongols mainly used.
A person who shoots with a bow and arrows, especially at a target for sport.
Genghis Khan
The founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia.
Kublai Khan
The fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.
Mongol Empire
Existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Marco Polo
An Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde, a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.
Ming Dynasty
The ruling dynasty of China for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Forbidden City
The Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912.
Admiral Zheng He
Originally named Ma He, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty.
A white vitrified translucent ceramic; china.