Western Europe Population
Population Revolution: Better border policing by government, which reduced the movement of disease-bearing animals/Better nutrition (potato) < Reduction of death rate, more surviving children= pressure on families
Enlightenment Philosophy
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine (Age of Revolution)
Population pressure and Upheaval
Pressure drove many people into the working class; prompted a rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing; ex: people become workers of textiles aka. Protoindustrialization; New consumer interest
American Colonies Establish Constitutional Structure based On Enlightenment
Declaration of Independence in 1776; government with checks and balances, branches of government, individual liberties, and limited voting rights
Causes of French Revolution
(1789-1799) Louis XVI calls parliament for new tax reform; Middle-class representatives want a new assembly for a republican rather than monarchy; (people's frustration with the king in his inability to deal with declining living conditions) *Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen*(mind frame)
Storming of Bastille
July 14; peasants break in the Bastille to still weapons and free prisoners (only 7 were there); triggered reforms; seen as Independence Day, beginning of French Revolution
Reforms of French Revolution
Universal male suffrage, abolishment of serfdom, equality for all men, end of aristocracy, end of church privilege, and establishment of elective parliament
Estates General
First Estate: clergy Second Estate: nobles Third Estate: peasants, merchants, artisans, bourgeoisie 98% of population
Reaction of the French Revolution
Church supports the King; Aristocrats leave France (scared)
Radical Phase of French Revolution
Louis XIV executed, Reign of Terror *Guillotine* Abolish Monarchy; execution of thousands of people
Maximilien de Robspierre
Leader of Radical Phase; worked to centralize government by purging non-revolutionaries; proclaimed universal male suffrage and army conscription; introduced metric system; helped establish new constitution but was never really practiced
Patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts; France establishes a national anthem (first ever)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Authoritarian; wanted religious liberty, equality under the law (not women), and popular nationalism; expansionist who's empire was most of Europe in 1812; Popular resistance in Portugal and Spain, a disastrous invasion of Russia, and British intervention crushed Napoleon's empire by 1815.
Impact of French Revolution
Spread of equality under law, nationalism, and attack on privileged institutions like the aristocracy and church
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of Napolenic Wars to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes; determined the future boundaries of Europe
Accepted the importance of most liberal demands, but they also wanted wider voting rights; supported outright democracy; urged social reforms in the interest of the lower classes
Focused on political structure; looked for ways to limit state interference in individual life and urged representation of propertied people in government; importance of constitutional rule and protection for freedoms of religion, press, and assembly
Opposed revolutionary goals; supported monarchy and defense of church
Urged attack on private property in name of equality; wanted state control of production; *think of people holding hands and getting equal amount of money for beginning*
Lower Birth and Death Rates; Better health and hygiene; children seen as source of emotional satisfaction and parental responsibility, not as workers
Louis Pasteur
French scientist who discovered germs in 1880s; led to sanitary regulations; reduced women death and child birth and improved health
Communities where work and rewards would be shared and the evils of capitalism would end; encouraged proletariat to go against the bourgeoisie for unjust pay; wanted an end of government; just a community of equality (socialism)
Argued that Marx's revolutionary vision was wrong and that success would be achieved by peaceful democratic means
Charles Darwin
Evolutionary Theory was published in 1859; argued that all living species had evolved into their present form through survival; Darwin's ideas clashed with traditional Christian beliefs
Britain's Australian Colonies 1788
Originated when the British put their convicts on land to establish a penal settlement; inhabitants before British were hunter and gathers; European inhabitants consisted of sheep raising agriculture; discovery of gold spurred population growth
Encouraged by nationalism; European nations wanted to increase their power and pride by adding new colonies; *White Man's Burden*
Industrialization Time Frame
(1619-1914) Begins with Dutch establish trading post in Java and ends with Outbreak of World War I; includes Seven Years War, Construction of railways and factories, etc
Dutch East India Company in Java
Were content to pay tribute to ruler of Java, Mataram; became involved in political rivalry; intervened the wars and helped the winner; as a favor for their help they dominate Java 1750; monopoly over spies
British East India Company in India
Meddled in conflicts between Indian princes; relied on the sepoys (Indian troops); As they supported the winning side, they gained territory; became major outlet for British manufactured goods, overseas investment, and supplies of raw materials
Asian Land Empires
Accumulated by the initiative overseas agents of the Dutch and British East India companies acting in the absence of instructions from the company directors
Latin America Imperialism
Creoles (American-born whites) and majority of population begin to question the policies of Spain and Portugal; start resenting government because of heavy taxes and administrative reforms
Difference in Beliefs: Latin American and the West
Latin America fought for their political independence and created new nations; cast off previous colonial controls through revolution ex: Haitian; did not believe in absolute monarchy like the west did
Simon Bolivar
A wealthy creole officer emerged as the leader of the revolt against Spain; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador; united the countries into a new nation called Gran Colombia
Centralist Theory: Latin America
Strong, centralized national governments with broad powers
Spanish-American War
American investment in Cuba predated the war, and following it the door was open for direct involvement in the Caribbean. Cuba became an American economic dependent, and Puerto Rico was annexed. U.S victory; resulted in Panama Canal
Territories of Ottoman Lost
European rivals took advantage of Ottoman weakness. The Austrians pushed the Ottomans from Hungary and the northern Balkans. The strengthened Russian state expanded into the Caucasus and Crimea. The subject Christian peoples of the Balkans challenged their rulers: the Greeks won independence 1830, and Serbia won independence in 1867.
Threat to Ottomans
The reforms (Janissaries Revolt, Tanzimat reforms) threatened the dynasty; western-educated bureaucrats came to view the sultanate as a major barrier to even more radical reforms
Rebellion from Ottoman Empire
First successful rebellion; Young Turks (Arab) were determined to restore the constitution and more reforms
Muhammad Ali
Emerged as the ruler of Egypt; introduced westernization and was able to challenge the Ottomans
Suez Canal
Built across Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869; financed by European investors; with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment
Machu Dynasty
Established the Qing Dynasty; weakness of Ming dynasty allowed the Manchus to seize control in China; Passed beyond the Great Wall; retained the examination system and styled themselves as the Sons of Heaven
British were forced to trade with China with silver; they were unhappy because they would soon run out of sliver so they started trading with Indian Opium; the Chinese got highly addicted to the opium (which started to damage the economy) and now gave the British sliver in favor for their opium
Japan and Russian Similarities of Industrialization
Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of imitation, Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and the West
Crimean War
(1854-1856) Russia versus Britain, France, and Turkey fought on the Black Sea; began as Russian attempt to attack Ottoman empire; war for control of territories that belonged to declining Ottoman Empire; resulted in Russian defeat because they were not advanced like westerners; led to Russian reforms under tsar Nicholas II
Russian Fear of Westernization
Russia was scared because of the revolts and revolutions of previous nations; ex. French revolution; They also did not want to face the resolution of serfdom
Emancipation of Serfs in Russia
1861- forced to buy lands to pay the redemption taxes on the land; productivity stagnant
Industrialization in Russia
Emancipation of serfs, population growth, zemstvoes (local political councils regulating roads), Siberian railroad, military and education reform
Capitalization of Russian Industry
Because of social protests and riots, Alexander II started pulling back from his reform interest and established a tight censorship; the protest groups started getting involved in Marxist doctrines and created a proletarian revolution
Goal of Russian intelligentsia
Wanted political freedom and deep social reform; wanted a different society than that in the west (which they saw as materialistic)
Russian Marxism
Bolsheviks-Marxist political party in Russia; proletarian revolution happened
The Duma
Unexpected defeat of the Russo-Japanese created protests that changed into a Russian Revolution of 1905; After trying brutal police repression the tsarist regime tried a new thing; a national parliament aka duma
Tokugawa Shogunate
Shogunate continued to combine a central bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances between regional daimyos and samurai. The government encountered financial problems because taxation was based on agriculture, while the economy was becoming more commercialized.
Matthew Perry
1853, an American naval squadron commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to the West. Later negotiations won the right to station a consul and open ports for commerce. European nations quickly secured equal rights.