Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa was a king of the Mali Empire who came to power in 1312 CE and ruled for 20 years. During his reign Mansa Musa went on an extravagant pilgrimage to Mecca. The volume of gold he spent during this pilgrimage was so high that it was reported to have altered the value of gold in the area.
Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe was a kingdom from the 11th through the 15th centuries CE in southeastern Zimbabwe, known today for its pottery and curved stone architecture.
Ghana Empire
- traded gold for salt - soninke people - Kumbi Saleh - Matrilineal
The Great Mosque of Kilwa
Kilwa is an island just off the coast of Tanzania. Kilwa was also an important trading city along the Swahili Coast. It was founded in the 10th century CE by the Persian Prince Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi who began the city as a sultanate.
Swahili Coast
Swahili means "of the coast" in Arabic. The Swahili Coast was an area of east Africa where in the eighth century CE, Arab and Indian traders established new port cities along the Indian Ocean. These cities included Mogadishu, Malindi, Mombasa and Kilwa.
Mali Empire
- traded gold for salt - Mansa Musa - Mandinke people - The Great Mosque of Timbuktu - Patrilineal - Niani
Songhai Empire
- traded gold for salt - Sunni Ali the Great - Gao - Patrilineal - Songhai people
Sonni Ali the Great
Sonni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire who ruled from 1464 to 1492 CE. By the end of his reign, the Songhai Empire grew larger even than the Mali Empire. Though not a Muslim, Sonni Ali allowed the practice of Islam, and practiced a kind of Islam which combined elements of the religion with local animist beliefs.
Economics in Great Zimbabwe
By 1350, Great Zimbabwe becomes the center of the gold trade. Peoples from across southern Africa brought gold to the fortressed city of Great Zimbabwe. From there, merchants carried the gold to port cities along the coast. This activity eventually attracted the attention of the Portuguese. This was a major economic shift.
Swahili Coast Economics
From 1000 CE onward, cities of the Swahili coast thrived from trade with Arab, Persian, Chinese, and Indian merchants. Economics brought Arabs and other peoples to the East African Coast, where they helped found more than a dozen port cities that would become hubs not only of trade but also of Swahili culture. Asian peoples traded silk, glass, porcelain, spices, oils, and other goods for African gold, ivory, iron and copper goods, and slaves.
Askia Muhammad
Askia Muhammad ruled the Soghia Empire from 1593 to 1628 CE. He was overthrown by his son. During his reign Askia Muhammad expanded the empire and increased its power.
Social Central and Southern Africa
By 1000 CE, in Central and Southern Africa, new fortified hilltop towns emerged among cattle- herding peoples whose elites began commanding stone constructions. Cattle became a symbol of social hierarchy and were often used to negotiate marriages. As cattle-herding peoples began to prosper, they honed their stone-working skills to build walled towns and fortresses to better protect their people and their herds. Cattle herders who migrated to this region had a social and an economic advantage over other inhabitants, mainly farmers, and quickly emerged as the higher class. They established the kingdom of Rwanda.
Christianity in Africa
Beginning in the fourth century, Christian missionaries traveled to East Africa. In 1000, Ethiopian 24 of 46 King Lalibela built 11 churches throughout his kingdom. Before Christianity came to East Africa, many Africans were pagan animists who worshiped nature and ancestor spirits. Byzantine missionaries brought Christianity to East Africa, and the religion spread to the interior through migrants and trade.
African Trade
Gold, ivory, and animal skins were valuable African trade items, but salt proved perhaps the most valuable in helping kingdoms such as Lunda and Luba gain wealth and power.
Spreading of Islam
From the 10th century onward, Arab merchants spread Islam south along the Swahili Coast, even helping establish a Muslim sultanate at Kilwa.
Wealth from trade helped an African nobility emerge and establish rule over powerful city-states such as Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Malindi.
Beginning around 2000 BCE, the Bantu- speaking peoples of the Niger and Bhenu River Valleys migrated into East, Central, and South Africa.
is a region that is defined by the cultural similarities of its indigenous populations. It extends from central Mexico through most of Central America, including Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The Aztecs and the Mayas are the most famous civilizations to thrive in this region, but they weren't the first.
The first great civilization in Mesoamerica was the Olmec, which flourished in southern Mexico from 1200 to 400 BCE. The Olmec came and went before the Aztecs even existed. The spread of their artifacts around the region shows that the Olmec had a great deal of influence on neighboring and later cultures.
After the decline of the Olmec people, other civilizations vied for control of the region. One particularly well-known group is the Zapotec, who first developed their society in what is now the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. Like their contemporaries, the Mixtec (Mixteca) and the Mayans, the Zapotec were likely influenced by the Olmec.
The ChavÍn were the first advanced society in the Andean highlands area of modern Peru. From 900 to 200 BCE, the ChavÍn flourished.
While the ChavÍn dominated the highlands of Peru, the Nazca were developed in Andean valleys. From 200 BCE to 600 CE the Nazca produced fine art.
The third great early civilization of Peru was the Moche, who flourished from 400 BCE to 800 CE.
Moctezuma II
the ninth Aztec emperor, conquered and imprisoned by the conquistador Hernán Cortés
the great capital city of the Aztecs, founded in the 14th century on islands in Lake Texcoco
Triple Aliance
agreement formed between the Aztecs and the cities in the Valley of Puebla-Tlascala to fight wars and gain prisoners for human sacrifice
a paper book from Mayan or other ancient American civilizations; plural codices
Huayna Capac
emperor of the Incas from about 1493 to 1525 - built city of Tumibamda - divided his empire
Moctezuma I
emperor of the Aztec from about 1440 to 1468 - built dike to control flooding - built aqueduct to supply fresh water - increased human sacrifice
Pacal the Great
powerful king of the Mayan city of Palenque - ruled for 67 years - assumed throne through his mother
Francisco Pizarro
spanish explorer and conqueror who conquered the Inca Empire and established a Spanish colony in South America in the early 1500s
a city of ancient Maya in southern Mexico, now existing in ruins
Sundiata Keita
Sundiata Keita, whose name means "hungering lion," was the first King of Mali. He founded the kingdom in 1235 CE. Later, he expanded the Kingdom's territory to include parts of the Kingdom of Ghana.
Bantu Migration
Beginning around 2000 BCE, Bantu-speaking peoples of the Niger and Bhenu River Valleys moved into East, Central and South Africa.
Machu Picchu
Machu Picchu is an ancient Incan city in the Andes Mountains. It is one of the few pre-Columbian cities to have avoided destruction by the Spanish. The city, which is high in the mountains, is a remarkable feat of engineering. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.